TIMETABLE FOR CHAPTER APPROVAL OF GUIDELINES.:
OCTOBER: POSTING OF CHANGES AND READ-THROUGH AT OCTOBER MEETING
NOVEMBER: VOTE BY THOSE PRESENT AT THE NOVEMBER CHAPTER MEETING
Oh boy! An article about the changes we made to the Bylaws! How exciting! (snore….) Below is a brief summary of the changes made to the Bylaws, and the main change is that the “Bylaws” are now called “Operating Guidelines.” The Board approved these on May 13, 2019, and we hope the membership will follow with approval in November.
Article I: We added reference to the Statewide CNPS organization being a 501 (c) 3 organization, with Bylaws; we added the Mission of the Society; and added the geographical area of the SLO Chapter.
Article II: Made grammatical changes; Added a purpose, which is: to regulate Chapter affairs such that they are compatible with the Society’s articles of incorporation and bylaws; and added two objectives:
- Increasing public awareness of the importance of California’s native flora through public education;
- Contributing to the Society’s governance by selecting a delegate to the Chapter Council;
Article III: No changes
Article IV: Section 4 and 5 regarding Nomination and Elections moved to Article IX and revised.
Article V: Officers. Clarified the duties of the President, namely, that the President is the primary representative of the Chapter in negotiations with other organizations, unless this representation is expressly delegated to another Board member. Added duties to the Secretary’s position of ensuring the posting of minutes to the administrative file. Clarified and added to the duties of the Treasurer, including maintaining the financial accounts of the Chapter.
Article VI. Board. Changed “Executive Board” to “Chapter Board”; Added reference to “Individual Contributors”; Changed the notice for meetings of the Chapter Board from 5 days to 7 days.
Article VII. Standing and Ad Hoc Committees: This section was revised considerably, both in terms of format and content. We defined standing and ad hoc committees, named 7 standing committees (and at least 4 ad hoc), and clarified the responsibilities of each committee. There was extensive discussion about what our major emphasis was, and will be in the future, and we decided to split up the former committees into key standing committees and recognize the work of Individual Contributors, with the goal being to be as inclusive as possible in the makeup of the Board.
New Section: Article VIII. Individual Contributors. We clarified the responsibilities of these important roles that tend to be carried out by individuals as opposed to committees.
Article IX. Nomination. We attempted to clarify the steps in the Nomination and Election process.
Added Article X. Limitation of Authority. No member of the Board binds the Chapter without Board approval.
Lastly, text relating to Chapter Status and Commitments was removed as obsolete.
View the full PROPOSED OPERATING GUIDELINES
The summer has flown. It seems like I was just admiring the blooms on my Clarkia. Now their seeds are in little packages ready for the seed exchange and I am on to watching the blossoms on my many Eriogonums. I am waiting for the seeds to ripen so those can end up in bags for the exchange as well. In between I have been collecting from Chlorogalum, Ceanothus, Sage, Sidalcea, Silene and numerous other plants.
I hope many of you have enjoyed watching the progression on your plants and that you are capturing that last stage of seed maturity before they disperse. Some of the plants that I have been nurturing out back that I am hoping to get in the ground this fall were from seeds that I obtained at our last seed exchange.
Think about what you hope to find at the seed exchange. What is that plant that you just can’t get at the nursery or our plant sale? Some of our members may be growing it at home and contributing seed to the exchange. Think about what you can contribute. As always you are welcome to take seed without contributing anything. The purpose of the seed exchange is to encourage the growing and planting of our native plants. Seed will not be sold at the exchange but extra seed may be packaged up for sale at our plant sale in November.
Cindy Gaulin has agreed to take on the set up for the sale this year. Seed may be brought in bulk, preferably cleaned but not absolutely necessary. We ask that seed be identified with Genus and species, location found and that it only come from California natives. Please bring a picture of the plant because not all of us recognize plant names, Latin or common. There will be empty seed packets available.
I hope to see you there at the Veteran’s Memorial Building on October 3rd from 6 to 7 pm before the chapter meeting.
Our chapter would like to have a high quality photo of every species in our county, as will be described in Dr. David Keil’s Flora.
We would like as many pictures as possible to be usable both for scientific purposes and for use in digital media, and as such we
would like to be the owners of the photos under copyright. All photo donations would retain and post the name of the
photographer in any use. Most photos found via CalFlora cannot be used in any item for sale, such as digital or printed books. If
you would like to donate, we can start with these species of Amaranthus: A. blitoides, A. californicus, A. hybridus and A. palmeri.
Send photos to David Chipping firstname.lastname@example.org.
With November fast approaching, it’s time once again to ask for volunteers for the plant sale. With last year’s relief from the long-standing drought,
hopes are high for another rainy season. I have gone back and looked at rain records based from San Francisco and they show that normally after a drought ends California has two to three years of normal to almost normal rainfall. So keeping this in mind, fall is a great time to plant natives. Tell your friends and neighbors to mark the first Saturday of November (Nov. 2nd) as the plant sale.
As you might guess the plant sale is one of our biggest fundraisers and is run totally on volunteer help. I have many jobs from hard to easy, depending on your abilities, so please contact me at email@example.com if you are interested in volunteering. Hours for set-up are from 7am to 9am, plant sale from 9am to 2pm, and clean-up from 2pm to 3pm. Early helpers get first pick on plants. But you are likely to get free plants if you help at clean-up. Those who want to just come and watch, that is fine too. The more the merrier.
In addition to plants, we will have a huge selection of books, posters, t-shirts, native plant seeds; great for early Christmas shopping! Suzette and I look forward to seeing you all at our October meeting.
John and Suzette, Plant Sale co-Chairpersons.
There has not been a lot of progress on the two large projects of greatest immediate concern. Chapter members attended several meetings, one of which was at the Coastal Commission, on plans to build a southern access to Oceano Dunes State Vehicle Recreation Area. There is zero indication that State Parks is changing it’s mind concerning building a campground and access roads adjacent to Oso Flaco Lake and its special, protected dune and wetland habitat. When the Environmental Impact Report is released, we will have greater opportunity to comment. The other issue, the large development at the mouth of Froom Creek at the Los Osos Valley Rd/ Hwy 101 junction, is having issues with wetland protection, and we are still awaiting an EIR on that.
As we march closer to fall, it’s time to think about preparing our landscape for the upcoming rains, cold nights and of course weeds. I thought it would also be a good time to think about tearing out overgrown shrubs and trees to replace them with new plants or the same thing.
Our chapter has always targeted our plant sale for November because it is the best time to plant with the winter rains coming, hopefully. But in a perfect world we can expect rains in January through March. So, what to do? Well, here are a couple of thoughts.
First, its time to take a walk through the garden and look closely at what you have already. Are you happy? Are some plants old and need to be replaced? Take a note pad with you and write down your thoughts. Sometimes I like to do this after work, when I’m feeling relaxed. I look at the yard and think to myself, “What would look really cool here?” This could take weeks, but knowing that the rains are coming, now is the time to, as my Dad used to say ‘Johnny, put your nose to the grindstone’. Second, prepare for the weeds, and this is best done by mulching. There are so many ways to mulch and there are some articles that say mulch can encourage weeds. In my experience, when mulch is applied too thin it is ineffective. A thick layer of three inches will put an end to most annual weeds. Perennials, such as Bermuda grass, will not be controlled with mulch, sorry. Further, it’s important to keep an eye on pests. Many pests will show up when you least expect them. I’m going straight to Neem oil now, with a soap spray every other treatment; very effective for spider mites, thrips and aphids. For loopers, which are prone to attack oaks, I use Bacillus thuringiensis. Spray at night, because it breaks down in the sun. It only controls loopers; therefore, it won’t hurt other insects.
This brings me to my last point. Whenever we spray in the garden, even with Neem oil that is totally organic, we need to watch for bees. If you see bees, the rule is to not spray. Spray late in the day when the bees have returned to their hives. I’ve covered a lot. So until next time, Happy Gardening.
– John Nowak, Plant Sale Chairperson.
Saturday, October 12, 2019, 9am – 1pm
The workshop is full and registration is closed. Please send an email to the organizers if you wish to be added to the wait list. You will be contacted by October 4 if space becomes available.
Email address firstname.lastname@example.org
This CNPS-SLO chapter workshop will provide a short lecture followed by field trips to local native plant gardens.
- Which plants tend to be available and work well
- Selecting appropriate plants based on site conditions
- Plant/soil relationships
- Learn from local landscapers and gardeners
Morning refreshments and coffee will be provided.
Class size is limited and advanced registration is required.
Registration ends October 4th, 2019. Cost is $30 for members and $40 for non-members. We will meet at UC Cooperative Extension (2156 Sierra Way # C, San Luis Obispo) for the lecture and first garden tour. Other garden tours will be at native plant enthusiasts’ homes in SLO. Questions? Please email David Krause email@example.com
Please arrive by 8:45 for check-in and breakfast refreshments. Participants are encouraged to bring a sack lunch to enjoy at the last tour stop.
CNPS will hold its first-ever meeting in August, on Thursday, August 1st, at the SLO Vets’ Hall at 7:00 pm. The featured speaker will Greg Rubin, an expert in native residential landscape design with special emphasis on fire resistant species. Greg will talk on his experience in Southern California, working in chaparral ecosystems. He will present the current approach to best practices for fire-safe plant selection and placement in suburban environs.
Greg Rubin, President and Founder of California’s Own Native Landscape Design, Inc. is a licensed landscape contractor who has worked with California native plants since 1985. His company has designed over 700 native landscapes in Southern California. Specialties include residential, commercial, and institutional landscapes that cover an array of garden styles, while providing year-round appeal, low maintenance, water efficiency, rich habitat, and fire-resistance.
Greg has been featured in a number of periodicals including the Wall Street Journal, San Diego Union Tribune and Los Angeles Times, and magazines such as Sunset, San Diego Home and Garden, California Gardener and Kiplinger’s. Media coverage includes repeat appearances on NPR. Greg regularly gives presentations and workshops on native plants to conferences, garden clubs and other organizations throughout Southern California.
Greg is co-author of a new book with Lucy Warren, “The California Native Landscape: The Homeowners’ Design Guide to Restoring its Beauty and Balance”, published by Timber Press. This popular native horticultural work covers all aspects of native landscape design. Greg also served on the boards of the Agua Hedionda Lagoon Foundation, California Native Plant Society, the Lux Art Institute, and the Garden Native foundation.
CNPS went live with past week with the new Calscape feature whereby users can search for host plants by butterfly species and location. (https://www.cnps.org/news-releases/help-for-the-insect-apocalypse-calscape-adds-host-plant-information-for-california-native-butterflies-and-moths-16245). This exciting addition to the Calscape website occurred during National Pollinator Week and is a tangible way ordinary folks can play a part in halting the dramatic insect decline.
We are happy to announce LynneDee Althouse has accepted the job of Membership Coordinator for the SLO Chapter. She is replacing Holly Sletteland, who has done a fantastic job with membership files for the past several years. We thank Holly for her expert management of the database and for her monthly correspondence with the new and lapsed members. We wish Holly continued success in her ongoing role as Project Manager at the Fiscalini Ranch Preserve and for her assertive advocacy on Central Coast conservation issues. If you have questions about membership, please contact LynneDee at firstname.lastname@example.org.
After months of rain we are finally in Spring! I’m sure most of you are knee deep in weeds and your mature plants are growing crazy which brings us to this month’s topic of pruning. As I mentioned several months ago, most California native plants bloom in March and April. Then they will began a vegetative growth spurt that will end in early September after which they will go into a dormant period due to our Mediterranean climate.
So how do we take advantage of the growth cycle to prune the natives in our gardens? My theory is to follow the bloom and seed transition. As I have discussed before, pruning during flower production is not productive. However, after flowers have gone to seed, it’s time to prune.
Pruning can vary depending on the genus and/or species of each plant. For example, Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) can be cut to the ground and it will come back with a beautiful flush of new growth. On the other hand, Arctostaphylos species (Manzanitas) and Ceanothus species can be shaped but no more than what is needed to maintain their desirable size. Salvia species are late bloomers, so when they are finished blooming you can prune off the old flower stocks to promote a more compact plant. Perennials, such as Heuchera species and Iris douglasiana (Douglas iris), will respond to the removal of old leaves and flower stock pruning. California native grasses can also be cut back after their seed head production to create a more desirable appearance.
In summary, April and May are great months to prune California native plants lightly to promote a more desirable shape. If you have any specific questions, please feel free to contact me. Hope you have an enjoyable summer. Until our next newsletter in the Fall, Happy Gardening.
-John Nowak, Plant Sale co-Chairperson
CNPS Education Program
Ocean Elementary School, Arroyo Grande
The stars finally aligned for us. On March 21, 2019, our chapter had the opportunity to work with Bev Gingg and Learning Among the Oaks, a program that has been working to introduce young children to the oak woodland community at the Santa Margarita Ranch, and, more recently, at the Pismo Preserve. The successful program, started in 2005, is now part of the Land Conservancy of San Luis Obispo and has grown so that it services Ocean View Elementary in Arroyo Grande in addition to Santa Margarita Elementary School, the original ‘home-base’ for the program. Children are recommended by their teachers to be part of the nine-week Oak Ambassador Training Program in which they learn how to serve as a docent and lead hikes in the oak woodland for younger students and their families. The Ambassadors receive comprehensive training about the oak ecosystem through classroom lectures and field visits, and spend time shadowing older Ambassadors as docents so they are prepared to do the same when they become fifth graders.
CNPS participated in one of the classroom trainings by preparing a botany lesson for a group of very motivated Ocean View Elementary fourth graders. We displayed numerous plant specimens representing plant communities of the Pismo Preserve, as well as plants that illustrated different seed dispersal methods and leaf arrangements. We knew that our efforts in preparing the lab were well-received when we heard the excited exclamations as the kids filed into the room. Our favorites: “It smells so good in here!” and “Botany is the best!” It was a whirlwind of an hour, packed with opportunities to learn about xylem tubes through the magic of celery and water cohesion by combining droplets together with a toothpick; discovering the parts of a flower through a keying exercise; smelling and questioning the pungent leaves of some of our common local plants; and, for a few lucky kids, getting ‘stamped’ with the lovely spore print of goldback fern on their clothes. We even had an excellent slideshow to pull it all together, created and presented by the engaging Lindsey Roddick.
Lindsey, Bill Waycott, and Susi Bernstein made up the CNPS team of “Plant Nerds” this time, but we welcome any of you reading this article to join us next spring. There are plans to expand the program to additional schools in the future, and CNPS has been asked to conduct botany lessons for these schools as well. Would you like to join us? There are bright children out there with receptive, spongy little brains. YOU could inspire and help mold them into future conservationists and CNPS members. -Susi
Dana Elementary School, Nipomo
Here are a couple of projects CNPS is currently working on in Nipomo, CA. Last summer, we reported on work with a 5th Grade class at Dana Elementary School, who had helped plant a CA native garden on the north side of the Nipomo County Library. Now, six months later, that garden is flourishing and the librarian, Heidi LoCascio, has asked CNPS to organize a larger planting for the front of the Library. This new garden will be planted by the parents and children who use the library and live in the local community, at the end of April 2019.
The other project involves the current 5th Grade class at Dana Elementary, which is creating a California native and vegetable garden at their school. Two weeks ago, those kids sowed flats of wild flowers seeds (arroyo lupine, tidy tips, and CA poppies), along with lettuce seeds. By the end of April, the students will have prepared the garden soil, and by mid-May their native plant and veggie seedlings will be large enough to transplant into the garden, it is hoped that by the end of the school year during the second week of June, the kids will have flowers and veggies to take home and enjoy.
Mugwort, Artemisia douglasiana
This plant was used for a variety of uses throughout California. The Chumash made a tea to put on poison oak to relieve the symptoms. They also made a felt cone from the dried leaves to burn on a patients skin to cauterize a wound (Source: Jan Timbrook). Leaves were placed in food storage containers, such as acorn granaries, to keep pests away. It was used ceremonially by many tribes. I think it has a lovely aroma, which according to some tribes, will give you pleasant dreams when put it under your pillow.
One time, many years ago, I volunteered to cut down a very large bush of poison oak next to a building at work because I did not think that I was very allergic to it. In the process of chopping it, there was so much sap that it went right through my clothes to my sweaty skin with open pores. I caught a bad case of it. I was on my way that weekend to a camping trip with the California Indian Basket Weavers Association in the Sierra foothills. I forgot to pack the Caladryl and was so miserable in the heat with my rash. I thought I might have to give up and go home. Then I remembered what I had heard about the mugwort. I asked one of the local women where it might grow nearby and she told me to go to where the highway goes close to the river. I gathered a bunch, crunched it up in a bucket of water. It kind of looked like Mug root beer. I found that when I sloshed it on my skin, I got just enough relief that I could stay at the event and enjoy myself.
Mugwort grows easily from runners and likes soggy winter soil that dries up in summer. It will die back then but come back when the rains start again. It likes the shade of oak trees, and will grow in sun if it has more water. It tolerates heavy clay soil just fine. It is often found along the side of trails and streams. It doesn’t have much in the way of flowers, but smells great.
I’ve collected my first seeds of 2019. Buttercup seeds are turning brown even as more buds open. Collecting will be an ongoing process which I can do easily since it is in my garden. This is just a reminder that seed season is upon us. As this newsletter is for both May and June and we won’t have another issue until October, this is my only opportunity to urge you to think of collecting seed for the seed exchange which will be held just before the chapter meeting in October.
We had more than seventy different species of seeds available last fall thanks to contributions from many of you. It would be fun to have more species and more people participating. We don’t mind duplicates. Perhaps there is genetic diversity between the seed from your yard and the seed from someone else’s. It all depends on pollen and the pollination. I have little ‘babies’ growing from seed I obtained at the seed exchange. I have a few Allium unifolium. The seeds did not germinate well for me and they don’t look happy. Time will tell. It’s fun to try though. The Ericameria ericoides are doing better.
Whether they will like my environment remains to be seen, but if they continue to survive I will have several to play with. It would be beautiful to have that splash of yellow in my yard. I planted Penstemon centranthifolius seeds from 2016 which were at our exchange several years ago. I made a mistake on that though. I planted them next to some Penstemon heterophyllus which germinates readily. I should have known better. Rain or watering may have knocked the seed into a different slot. It’s much better to plant similar things farther apart. Since my seed germination trays are out on tables by the garage and open to the wind and the birds I am not positive at this point that it’s really P. centranthifolius. It could be P. heterophyllus. Again time will tell. As they mature the plants will look very different.
I hope that some of you who got seed from the exchange have had success and will be enjoying the benefits of lots of plants with just a bit of time, soil and water. My favorite time is when the seeds first germinate. It’s fun to see what I can grow and what just doesn’t like my methods. It’s a bit of work to keep moving the plants up but once planted in the garden I can point to them and proudly say “I grew that from seed.” I hope to see you at the seed exchange in October.
-by Marti Rutherford
Matilija poppy, Romneya coulteri
The illustration on the cover of this Obispoensis is another of Heather Johnson’s wonderful watercolors. It was just too beautiful not to use, in spite of the fact its natural range barely reaches our Chapter’s area.
The text below was written by Alice Meyer back in the 1970’s or early 80’s for the local Audubon Chapter Newsletter. Alice, along with her husband, Bud, were the very first recipients of the Chapter’s Hoover Award. As you will probably gather from Alice’s discussion below, she was a very good native plant gardener. She is also the person most directly responsible for the creation of our annual plant sale back in the early 1970’s.
I feel compelled to add one additional tidbit about the Matilija poppy. It had a very important but behind-the-scenes role in a 1998 film entitled “The Mask of Zorro.” The plot of the movie involved the kidnapping of a young girl, who was then taken back to Spain where she grew up and where she was told she had been born. Upon returning to California, she remembered the odor of the plant her true parents had placed around her crib. That plant, of course, was the Matilija poppy which as you are about to learn is basically confined to California (Upper and Lower). But, let’s leave it to Alice to tell you the rest.
The Matilija poppy is regarded as one of our most magnificent perennial wild flowers, with its gray-green foliage and its 3-5 inch wide crinkly white flowers. It was discovered by Dr. Thomas Coulter, who named it after the Britsh astronomer Dr. Romney Robinson. Hence the botanical name, Romneya coulteri Rom-nee-a colt-er-i).
The common name, Matilija poppy, was bestowed because it grew so profusely in Matilija Canyon in Ventura County, but it is also found in canyons and washes from Santa Barbara to lower California at 1000-2500 feet. Locally one may see it occasionally along the roadside on Hwy 101 from San Luis Obispo to Arroyo Grande. It flowers from June to September. This plant is so attractive it is much in demand for home gardens, but nurseries have the plant for sale only occasionally.
Growing it from seed is difficult, since the seeds are very slow germinating – (up to 2 years). Germination can be hastened by planting in sand in a flat with a foot of pine needles on top, then burning the pine needles. When cool, remove the ashes and water the flat from the bottom. When the seedlings have a few true leaves, transplant into small containers. When containers are full of roots, transplant the plants in gallon cans.
Propagation may also be done from root cuttings taken in December or January, which is the easiest way to propagate the plant. After the plants are set out, they should receive supplemental water for the first two years, but when well established, natural rainfall should suffice.
Our Chapter almost always has it at our annual native plant sale in November. From conversations overheard at our plant sale Matilija poppy is relatively difficult to get started. Customers indicate that they have tried several years before having success, then they complain that once established, the species can be difficult to contain).
Matilija poppy, Romneya coulteri
Melissa Mooney was recognized with the 2018 Hoover Award at our January Banquet, an honor that highlights her commitment to CNPS’ mission of understanding and documenting California’s flora, focused specifically on rare plants and plant communities. View more
After several years of dryness, we are finally blessed with a cold and wet winter. With all this rain it’s important to go over a checklist for the Spring profusion of plant growth. Seeing flowers already showing on Salvia, Ceanothus, Manzanitas, and Mahonias, at this time, it’s important NOT to prune your native shrubs. Pruning now would only remove the new flower buds and destroy an important source of nectar for the bees, birds, insects and animals.
Second on the list is do not use pesticides unless you have a severe insect infestation. Spraying would produce a situation thatwould put bees and other good insects at risk. Now is the time to release beneficial insects into the garden. Most nurseries start to receive these insects, such as ladybugs, at this time of year.
Third, stake trees and remove broken branches. The heavy winds are great for removing dead branches from oaks and pine trees but they can also damage young trees and shrubs. While staking, take time to inspect the root zone to make sure not to drive a stake into a main root, this would only defeat the purpose of the staking.
Next, remove the largest weeds growing closet to the trunks of tree and shrubs. Don’t use Round-Up™. Large weeds can be pulled and composted. For smaller weeds, spray with straight vinegar. This will burn the small weeds and will not affect the soil. There are also several new organic based weed sprays mostly made from peppermint oil.
Last, do not rototill close to tree and shrub trunks. This weed control method works great but can cause serious damage to surface roots. Lastly, get your favorite chair and beverage ready so you can relax and enjoy your beautiful garden and the flowers to come!
Until next month, Happy Gardening; John Nowak, Plant Sale co-Chairperson.
A few years ago, I became interested in lichens and bryophytes during the winter months when there were few flowers to look for. I took a class on lichen ID up at U.C. Berkeley’s Jepson herbarium, and then another at the Santa Barbara botanic garden. I highly recommend these classes for anyone wanting to learn more about lichens. Most lichens have algae as a photosynthesizing component, others use a cyanobacteria in addition to its fungal component. CNPS has helped protect rare lichens as ranked plants, so I’m including them this month in Ethnobotany Notes.
People around the world use lichens for food, medicine, dying wool, and a variety of other uses. I have read that Native American people in the Pacific Northwest had traditionally eaten a type of Bryoria lichen, which was boiled or pit roasted in a special way to reduce the toxicity from the secondary compounds. I’ve also heard of friends who made an antibiotic salve from our local Usnea. Usnic acid has long been a part of commercial herbal deodorants and skin creams. There are reports that it was used for baby diapers as well. It is estimated that 50% of all lichen species have antibiotic properties.
Some lichens were used for poison, especially those high in vulpinic acid which tends to make a very yellow lichen. Lichens were also used in ancient Egypt as part of the embalming process. Lichens are a common source of natural dyes. Indigenous people in North America made a yellow dye from the Wolf Lichen, Letharia vulpina of the Sierras by boiling it in water. Some dyes can be extracted with boiling water, but others require ammonia fermentation, which is steeping the lichen in ammonia (traditionally urine) for at least two to three weeks. In the Scottish highlands, various lichens yielded red, orange, brown, and yellow dyes. In Europe, a purple was extracted from Roccella and Ochrolechia. Litmus, the pH indicator is extracted from the Roccella lichen.
Ethnolichenology has quite a Wikipedia page. I was surprised. It is well worth looking up, if only for the 19th century Japanese painting of Umbilicaria lichen gathering. If this has whetted your appetite for lichens, you can find lichen walks and workshop information at the California Lichen Society (CALS) website: californialichens.org. Sylvia Sharnoff has also written about lichens and people.
by Cathy Chambers
Photo: Red Usnea rubicunda at Los Osos Oaks Reserve; photo David Chipping