Saturday, November 5th, 2011
Please join us at
Pacific Beach High School
11950 Los Osos Valley, Road San Luis Obispo
(At the Target intersection) (more…)
Please join us at
11950 Los Osos Valley, Road San Luis Obispo
(At the Target intersection) (more…)
Our chapter is developing strong ties with the Friends of the Carrizo Plain in developing resources such as a wildflower guide, and providing road and trail logs of vegetation and geology. If you love the Carrizo and want to work with CNPS and FOCP projects contact me or Dr. Dirk Walters. (more…)
One or the other or both wild species, common (Avena fatua) or slender (A. barbata) wild oats are extremely widespread all along the Pacific Coast. They can be found in vacant lots, roadsides, pastures, and yes, even in our beautifully kept native plant gardens. This doesn’t mean that we’re bad gardeners, just that this genus produces very effective weeds.
Wild oats are members of the grass family (Poaceae or Gramineae). Oats have some of the largest flowers in this family of otherwise tiny to minute flowers.
Their parts are almost large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Individual grass flowers are aggregated into tiny clusters (spikelets). The spikelets are the readily visible units hanging down in the photograph and drawing.
Each oat spikelet consists of two large scales (bracts or more specifically glumes) surrounding two to three small flowers called florets. Each floret contains the 3 male organs (stamens) and a single pistil consisting of a basal ovary and two feathery stigmas. The stamens and pistils can’t be seen in the drawings or photo as they are totally hidden between to additional bracts.
The outer (and the only one visible) is the canoe-shaped lemma and a totally surrounded, thin palea. There are no recognizable sepals or petals. In the wild oat species, a stout bristle arises from the back of the lemma. This bristle is known as an awn. After the pistil is pollinated, its single seed matures and fuses to the inner ovary wall to become the unique fruit produced only by the grasses (caryopsis or grain).
The seed coat and ovary walls, when removed from the grain, are the bran we can buy at grocery and health food stores. In oats, the outside of the developing grain adheres to the inside of lemma and palea. This means that seed dispersal in oats (as well as most other grasses) is actually floret dispersal. The awn plays a vital role in this dispersal. The long, stout awns are bent in the middle; they bend or straighten depending on moisture availability. When it is moist, the awns absorb water and straighten at the bend. This causes the floret body (including enclosed seed) to be pushed forward. When it is dry, the awn flexes at the bend. Why doesn’t it pull the floret back? Notice the short, backward oriented “hairs” at the base of the floret. As the floret dries, these flip out and prevent it from being pulled backwards. Thus the floret is consistently pushed forward until it buries itself under a clod or it falls into a crack in the soil. Either way, the process both disperses and plants the oat seed.
There are three species of oats listed in Hoover’s SLO County flora. Two of the species possess a moderate to stout awn. These are the slender oat (Avena barbata) and the common oat (A. fatua). The third species in found occasionally along road sides and in fields where it had been grown. It is the domesticated oat (A. sativa). Domesticated oats produce larger grains and either totally lack an awn or if awns are present, they are weak. The lack of an awn would make the domesticated oats much better for animal feed.
The origin of oats is somewhat controversial. It is for sure, Old World and domestication most likely took place somewhere in the area surrounding the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is rarely mentioned in literature of the early cultures of this area and then only as animal feed. It probably didn’t stack up well against the dominate grains of the area, wheat and barley. It seems to have had better acceptance further north and east in Central Eastern Europe and adjacent Western Asia. Here it became quite important, but not much as a human food but the mainstay of horse diet. It is from this area that the first mounted soldiers arose and horses allowed them readily to conquer the surrounding “horseless” peoples.
The conquering of horseless cultures by horse-mounted armies was repeated whenever it occurred. It even was a factor in Spain’s defeat of the Aztecs and Incas. Interestingly, the re-introduction of the feral horses into North America apparently caused the then agricultural Great Plains Native Americans to become mobile buffalo hunters. Why all this discussion of the horse? Because it was probably the need to bring grain on ships to feed the horses that introduced oats into California and beyond.
According to Jan Timbrook, the Chumash used the grains of wild oats and chia (Salvia colunbariae) seeds in a concoction. Wild oats (along with any native grasses growing with them) were beaten or striped into baskets. The chaff was beaten off with a mallet against rocks. The flour was separated from the chaff by winnowing. The flour was mixed with water and chia was added. It provided both energy and protein.
There’s one more human-wild oat interaction worth mentioning. The July 2, 2011 Science News reports that herbicide resistant wild oats infects at least 4.9 MILLION hectares. This is over 1 million hectares more area than the second place plant water hemp.
First off, wild oats are not particularly “naturally” resistant to herbicides. Second, the article discusses herbicide resistance that is transferred to wild (weedy) plants from genetically modified crops. The way emphasized in the article, is via transfer of the herbicide resistant genes from genetically engineered crops to the weed via ordinary transfer of pollen. The crops are engineered to have a high tolerance for a specific herbicide. Then the farmer is assured that he may use large amounts of the herbicide to kill weeds without affecting the crop.
Unfortunately, many plant species can transfer pollen BETWEEN DIFFERENT species. Once the gene for herbicide resistance is in the weed, then it will spread rapidly via ordinary natural selection processes. When herbicides are applied wholesale as they are in modern monoculture agriculture, a few individuals that received the genetically modified gene are more likely to survive and produce seedlings that also carry the gene and are therefore resistant also. These seedling grow up and produce more and more resistant plants at an ever increasing rate. If you remember much about evolution, you can see that farmers are both supplying the source of the gene as well as applying a strong selection pressure for the spread of the resistance gene. The last is the same process, by the way, that creates antibiotic resistant microbes when we over use antibiotics. Only microbes often do it in a shorter time due to their faster reproductive rate.
The article talks primarily about a class of herbicides known as glyphosates which is found in a wide variety of herbicides including Roundup. It is this component that crop breeders have been adding to the genome of crops. The article talks primarily about resistance in and around crop fields, especially around grain fields. I suspect Roundup and Fusilade work in your garden because resistance is not universal. It just hasn’t reached isolated areas like your garden. Let’s hope it never does! But I hope it does raise a red flag about over use of any chemical pesticide. There is no genetic resistance to mechanical pulling of weeds!
Isn’t it great to come back after a summer of rest, exotic locations, family adventures or whatever else you were doing? I’m looking forward to our meetings.
I’ve picked up some new books and other materials for our book table, so be sure and give yourself time to browse at the October meeting. Also, we will be hosting a booth at the Nipomo Native Garden sale on Sunday, October 2, so come on out and join us. They have a great area to enjoy, and lots of plants for sale.
I would like to take this time to thank Karen Frank for all her help as my plant sale co-chairperson.
Over the years, and I mean years, Karen has put in many hours at the sale and has always been there to help. She and I went to CalPoly together and I am glad that we were able to continue our friendship as members of CNPS. Due to a change in her work, Karen can no longer help and I am looking for a member who would like to take her place assisting me.
The job is pretty simple – mainly just show up the day of the sale and help me get everything organized.
If you think you would like to be plant sale co-chairperson, please give me a call on my cell phone 805-674-2034. I promise that you will have fun and meet many interesting people. It’s also a good feeling knowing that you helped out our chapter in this very special way. Thank you.
by John Muir Laws and Emily Bruenig
Our parent organization, CNPS, is offering a spectacular curriculum for children that works in a multitude of settings from school yards to CNPS events, to camps and family outings. It is geared primarily towards children age 8 and up, meeting grades 3 through 7 standards but it is easily adaptable for teenagers and adults.
Opening the World through Journaling: Integrating art, science, and language arts, a curriculum written for CNPS by John Muir Laws and Emily Brueunig, teaches children to become keen observers of the natural world by drawing and writing about the plants and animals in situ. In a set of nested exercises, students use games to gain confidence in drawing and writing as a way to gather information. Later, they employ these skills to put together a field guide, make treasure maps, and to write short stories and poems.
“Keeping a field journal develops and reinforces the most important science process skills; observation and documentation. All other parts of the process of science depend on these skills. We assume that we are naturally good observers, but learning to really see is a skill that must be learned and developed. Journal activities tie directly to the State of California science framework content standards and the visual and performing arts framework content standards.” –John Muir Laws
CNPS would like to know who uses the material and how it is used for grant and goal purposes and will send you a request to evaluate the curriculum after using it. For this reason, the curriculum is available only from the CNPS website (link). *This project is funded to date by the JiJi Foundation
Please leave a comment below if you have used this curriculum. Everyone would love to hear about your experience! Thank you.
(Call for confirmation of times open to public)
Las Pilitas Native Plant Nursery 3232 Las Pilitas Road, Santa Margarita 805-438-5992 (Retail Fri & Sat)
Growing Grounds Farm Wholesale Nursery 3740 Orcutt Rd, San Luis Obispo 805-543-6071 (Retail 3rd Tues of Month)
SAGE Ecological Landscapes, 1301 Los Osos Valley Road, Los Osos, CA 93402 (805) 574-0777
Clearwater Color Wholesale Nursery 2335 Jacaranda Ln, Los Osos 805-528-4458 (Wholesale only)
Native Sons Wholesale Nursery 379 W. El Campo, Arroyo Grande 805-481-9636 (Retail 2nd Sat in April)
West Covina Wholesale Nursery 165 W. El Campo, Arroyo Grande 805-481-7626 (Wholesale only)
(Call for confirmation of times open to public)
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden 1212 Mission Canyon, Santa Barbara 805-682-4272 (classes)
Matilija Nursery 8225 Waters, Moorpark 805-523-8604
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden 1500 W. College, Clairmont 909-625-8767 (classes)
Theodore Payne Foundation Nursery 10459 Tuxford, Sun Valley 818-768-1802 (classes and seed sales)
Tree of Life Nursery 33201 Ortega Hwy, San Juan Capistrano 949-728-0685
If you can’t find what you are looking for, ask your nursery to order it for you
BenJoy Nursery 2168 Lopez, Arroyo Grande 481-7488
Cherry Lane Nursery 436 Traffic Way, Arroyo Grande 489-1809
Miners Ace Hardware 186 Station Way, Arroyo Grande 489-9100
Miners Ace Hardware 9370 El Camino Real, Atascadero 466-0270
Bay Laurel Nursery 2500 El Camino Real, Atascadero 466-3449
Windmill Nursery 925 W. Hwy 246, Buellton 688-3993
Cambria Nursery and Florist 2801 Eton Rd, Cambria 927-4747
Los Osos Valley Nursery 301 Los Osos Valley Road, Los Osos 528-5300
Miners Ace Hardware 520 Highway 41, Morro Bay 722-2233
Nipomo Old Town Nursery 323 W. Tefft, Nipomo 929-1084
Whispering Tree 110 Norris, Orcutt 937-3808
Farm Supply 675 Tank Farm, SLO 543-3751
Miner’s Ace Hardware 2034 Santa Barbara St., SLO 543-2191
Do you have a nursery or source for California Natives that isn’t listed here? Or an update to this information? Please enter a comment below and we will update this page …
By Betsey Landis
Los Angeles/Santa Monica Mountains Chapter, California Native Plant Society
This book is written for teachers and school garden educators and planners. Anyone can download all or parts of the book for free from CNPS Chapter websites. However the book may not be printed and sold without the express permission of the Los Angeles/Santa Monica Mountains Chapter of CNPS. We have discussed printing small special orders but we do not plan to do any more printing of the book in the hundreds or thousands. I understand what I have written on those first two pages is a type of “creative commons” copyright. -Betsey Landis (the author)
Because of the size of this book, we have created four separate PDF files for viewing on the web and for download:
Have you used this resource for your school or public garden? Please share your experience in the comments below …
Sunday October 2nd, 9:00am – 3:00pm
Parking Lot — Corner of Osage & Camino Caballo in Nipomo
Talk with members of the Nipomo Native Garden regarding appropriate plants for your specific landscaping needs, transplanting tips, and propagation techniques.
Visit their web site for a list of plants that we expect to be available. http://www.nipomonativegarden.org
All proceeds go to supporting the Garden.
DIRECTIONS: From the 101 Fwy. in Nipomo, go weston Tefft to Pomeroy. Turn right at Pomeroy to Camino Caballo. Turn left onto Camino Caballo and right onto Osage, and continue up to the parking lot and sale.
Put on by San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden
Sunday, Sept. 11, 1 PM – 3 PM
How do you attract wildlife to your garden with California natives? You’ll need to come Sunday, September 11 to hear Penny Wilson Nyunt tell you how. Penny literally grew up in her parents’ California native plant nursery, Las Pilitas. She graduated from Cuesta and CalPoly in Biological Sciences and has written for various gardening publications and websites. Although she grows and sells plants, she vehemently claims to not be a gardener. Instead of changing your environment to suit your plants, she believes it is easier and more environmentally friendly to choose plants that grow in your environment. There are plenty of choices since California has around 6000 native plant species. This fundamental idea gives her the basis for creating beautiful, easy landscapes with high wildlife value.
SLO Botanical is located at 3450 Dairy Creek Road, San Luis Obispo,California 93405. You can reach them at (805) 541-1400 for more information.
Put on by San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden
Sept. 10, 1 PM – 3 PM
SLO Botanical is very excited to have Carol Bornstein, acclaimed author and horticultural expert from Santa Barbara, come and give her expert advice on native plants of California. Carol is a horticulturist, instructor, and garden designer. For 30 years, she has been an advocate for sustainable, regionally appropriate landscaping. While Director of Horticulture at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, she managed the living collections, retail nursery, and plant introduction program and selected several new cultivars. She continues to seek out exceptional plants for California gardens and to share her knowledge of plants native to California and other Mediterranean regions through her writing, teaching, and design work. Her book, Reimagining The California Lawn, is the Item of the Month for September at our Eve’s Garden Shop; be sure to check it out!
SLO Botanical is located at 3450 Dairy Creek Road, San Luis Obispo,California 93405. You can reach them at (805) 541-1400 for more information.
I am going to ask a special favor of participating photographers. I will move all slide packages to the computer that is tied to the projector, so have pictures as jpeg format in a folder under your name. Label slides in alphabetical order to ensure sequencing order. I will also be able to load PowerPoint. We had so many last year that the program went on a little too long, so I would like to limit the individual folders, with the best slides in the first ten in case we cut you off, but with the extra five to ten if offerings are unexpectedly slim. Also I will “guesstimate the time per offering” on the day, but I hope that your verbal dialogs will be fairly short.
I would like to have presenters arrive close to 7:00 for offloading from disk or thumb drive.
I will open the program at 7:30 with a very short business session before the show begins.
The Santa Clara Valley chapter of CNPS is offering a two-day symposium on designing,installing, and maintaining native plant gardens of lasting value, aimed at professionals, home gardeners, and native plant enthusiasts.
Saturday, September 17, 2011: talks by leading practitioners Carol Bornstein, Michael Craib, David Fross, Luke Hass, and Deva Luna, and books for sale at Lafayette Community Center, 500 St Mary’s Road, Lafayette.
Sunday, September 18, 2011: Workshops by Jocelyn Cohen, Stephen Edwards, Katherine Greenberg, Don Mahoney, and Pete Veilleux, guided tour and plant sales at the Regional Parks Botanic Garden, Wildcat Canyon Road, Berkeley. Five concurrent workshops over two time slots:
Sunday participants are invited to bring a picnic lunch, and stay for afternoon plant sales and docented tours at two locations: Regional Parks Botanic Garden as well as Native Here Nursery, 101 Golf Course Road, Berkeley.
The symposium is organized by California Native Plant Society, Friends of Regional Parks Botanic Garden, and Pacific Horticulture.
Members and subscribers of the sponsoring organizations receive a discount on registration fees.
Space is limited and early registration is recommended.
For more information and to register, visit http://gns.cnps-scv.org.. With questions, call Margot Sheffner 510-849-1627.
Fleming garden in late summer. Photo: Luke Hass
You probably have healthy fruit trees and roses with little noticeable damage. During late summer/early fall, you begin to notice many leaves missing. At this level, it’s best to move the plants the deer like near to the house or fence them off. Fencing can be very minor. This is the level at which most deer tricks and “folk” remedies work. However, prepare to move up to next level of protection as your garden develops and the deer get wise to your tricks. Remember to cage all plants the first fall if you are watering or doing fall planting. Deer will zero in on most Ceanothus and Cercocarpus species.
Your trees will have no fruit or leaves below 4 feet. Your roses will have every leaf removed in late summer and fall. Plants listed as “Deer Proof” hold up well but will be sampled once or twice a year. If you plant and/or water your plants during late summer/fall expect to get much more damage. This is deer salad in a dry time. Do not plant Atriplex species or Arctostaphylos from areas other than your own. Most Ceanothus, Fremontodendron, Lyonothamnus and Lilium species must be caged until tall and woody. Deer will also eat small pines in fall, so cage. They will also eat new growth on pines if it can reached. Again, cage the first fall. Planting in an area that receives moderate level deer browse is much easier in the spring.
At this level, deer are literally living with you. During the day you see them sleeping, while at night they wander through your garden sampling as if at a salad bar buffet. You may even notice they will even eat so-called poisonous plants like oleanders and buckeyes. In the fall, redwoods and other soft-wooded conifers can be pushed out of the ground by bucks cleaning their antlers. Las Pilitas Nursery experienced this nuisance for a month, two years in a row, near the end of the 7-year drought. Deer destroyed thousands of container stock until a 7-foot fence and motion detectors were installed.
The fence has to be one the deer can neither climb over nor crawl under. Fences work best on a slope because deer do not seem to want to jump fences where the land slopes steeply. With a slope you can get away with a much lower fence. A 3-foot orchard fence with 2 strands of barb wire above (making it a 4- foot fence) next to a 45% slope will not be jumped. Large bucks can clear a 7-foot fence on flat ground if determined. Deer will get under a fence with as little as a 5-inch clearance. Again, remember to stop watering as soon as possible. Watering does not allow a plant to form protective resins and will make a normally stinky leaved plant like elderberry odorless and edible to deer.
Acacia greggii. A well armed shrub-tree. Deer will only eat new growth.
Amorpha californica. Deciduous shrub. Deer have never touched. Difficult to grow and hard to find.
Baccharis pilularis ‘Pigeon Point’. Cover for first year with chicken wire so deer can not pull out of the ground. Plant i-gallon size 8 feet apart & in 2 to 3 years will have a fine groundcover.
Ceanothus ‘Blue Jeans’. Has been deer proof at all but one site to date. If heavily watered or in rich soils deer will eat in late summer/fall.
Ceanothus ‘Mills Glory’. Have been deer proof at all known sites.
Ceanothus ‘Snowball’. Deer proof on all sites but is only happy at coast.
Cupressus species. Deer do not like these at all. Drive 3 T -posts next to these after they get 4-5 feet tall. Bucks love to clean the dead skin off their antlers on these.
Mimulus (Diplacus) species. Shrubby Monkey flowers have not been enjoyed by deer yet.
Erigeron glaucus. ‘Wayne Roderick’ seems to be most deer proof in most instances. Other varieties go from untouched to nothing left.
Ferns. California native ferns seem to be safe.
Iris species. Deer have not eaten even if bedding in vicinity. Unknown if safe on sites where they are not native.
Monardella species. Untouched.
Satureja douglasii. Will be deer proof if you stop watering in summer and allow it to go dormant.
Sequoia sempervirens. Same as Cupressus.
Sequoiadendron giganteum. Same as Cupressus.
Adapted from Las Pilitas Nursery with permission from Bert Wilson 2000.
Compiled by members of the San Luis Obispo Chapter of the California Native Plant Society,
P. O. Box 784, San Luis Obispo CA 93406
Compiled by: Mark Brunschwiler, David Krause, Dennis Sheridan
|Agaricus augustus||Prince||Roadsides and disturbed areas|
|Agaricus californicus||Mock meadow mushroom||Roadsides and disturbed areas|
|Agaricus campestris||Meadow mushroom||In grassy areas at edge of woods|
|Aleuria aurantia||Orange peel fungus|
|Amanita gemmata||Gemmed amanita|
|Amanita muscaria||Fly agaric|
|Amanita muscaria||Yellow form of fly agaric|
|Amanita ocreata||Destroying angel|
|Amanita pachycolea||Western grisette|
|Amanita pantherina||Panther amanita|
|Amanita phalloides||Death cap|
|Amanita velosa||Springtime amanita|
|Aqaricus silvicola||Woodland agaricus|
|Armillaria mellea||Honey mushroom|
|Boletus chrysenteron||Cracked-cap bolete|
|Boletus dryophilus||Oak loving bolete|
|Boletus edulis||King bolete|
|Boletus piperatus||Peppery bolete|
|Boletus satanus||Satan’s bolete|
|Boletus zelleri||Zeller’s bolete|
|Chrooqomphus visicolor||Wine colored pine spike|
|Clitocybe dealbata||Sweat-producing Clitocybe|
|Clitocybe nuda||Wood blewit|
|Coprinus atramentarius||Inky cap|
|Cortinarius species||Purple cortinarius|
|Cortinarius species||Rimmed cortinarius|
|Craterellus cornucpioides||Black trumpet|
|Crucibulum laeve||Bird nest fungus|
|Cryptoporus volvatus||Cryptic globe fungus|
|Ganoderma applanatum||Artist’s conch|
|Geastrum species||Earth star|
|Gymnopilus spectabilis||Laughing Jim|
|Gyromitra californica||Umbrella false morel|
|Helvella lacunosa||Fluted black elfin saddle|
|Hericium erinaceus||Lion’s mane|
|Hygrocybe conica||Witches hat|
|Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca||False chanterelle|
|Hypomyces chrysospermus||Boletus eater|
|Laccaria amethysteo-occidentalis||Amethyst gilled laccaria|
|Laccaria laccata||Lack luster laccaria|
|Lactarius alnicola||Golden milk cap|
|Lactarius chrysorheus||Yellow staining milk cap|
|Lactarius deliciosus||Delicious milk cap|
|Lactarius rubidus (fragilis)||Candy cap|
|Lactarius vinaceorufescens||Yellow staining lactarius|
|Lepiota rachodes||Parasol mushroom|
|Leucopaxillus albissimus||Large white leucopaxillus|
|Leucopaxillus amarus||Bitter brown Leucopaxillus|
|Lycoperdon foetidum||Black puffball|
|Lycoperdon perlatum||Common or Gemmed puffball|
|Marasmiums ordeades||Fairy ring mushroom||In grassy areas|
|Mycena purpureofusca||Grows on pine cones|
|Mycena species||Little brown mushroom|
|Naematoloma fasciculare||Clustered woodlover|
|Omphalotus olivascens||Western jack-o-lantern mushroom|
|Panaeolus campanulatus||Bell-shaped panaeolus|
|Phaeolus schweinitzii||Dyer’s polypore|
|Pistolithus tinctorius||Dead man’s foot|
|Pleurotus ostreatus||Oyster mushroom|
|Ramaria rasilispora||Yellow coral mushroom|
|Rhizopoqon rubescens||Blushing false truffle|
|Russula albidula||White russula|
|Russula emetica||Emetic russula|
|Russula rosacea||Rosy stemmed russula|
|Russula species||Brick capped russula|
|Sparassis crispa||Cauliflower mushroom|
|Suillus brevipes||Short stem slippery jack|
|Suillus luteus||Slippery jack|
|Suillus punqens||Pungent slippery jack|
|Trametes versicolor||Bracket fungus or turkey tails|
|Tremella foliacea||Brown witches butter|
|Tremella mesenterica||Witches butter|
Gardening for fragrance opens up another dimension of gardening. You can be whisked back to another place and time or other remembrances by the fragrances given off by your plantings. Once you start noticing aromas, you will quickly come up with your own favorites. Since everyone’s sense of smell is different, fragrances are open to different interpretations.
Photo courtesy of Gerald and Buff Corsi
© California Academy of Sciences
These plants are fragrant when you are near
Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar)
Oenothera caespitosa (evening primrose)
Philadelphus lewisii (mock orange)
Pinus Jeffreyi (Jeffery Pine)
Ribes viburnifolium (evergreen current)
Salvia Clevelandii (Cleveland sage)
Solanum species (nightshade)
These plants are fragrant when you are very close
|Calycanthus occidentalis (spice bush)
Fragaria californica (Woodland strawberry)
Keckiella antirrhinoides (snap dragon)
Rosa species (rose)
These plants give off scent when you brush against
|Artemisia species (sagebrush)
Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar)
Cupressus species (cedars)
Juniperus species (junipers)
Lepechinia species (pitcher sage)
Mentha arvensis (mint)
Monardella species (Ca. pennyroyal)
Myrica californica (Ca sweet bay)
Ribes species (currants)
Salvia species (sages)
Satureja species (Yerba Buena)
Trichostema lanatum (wooly blue curls)
Umbellularia californica (Ca bay-laurel)
These plants are fragrant at dusk or night
|Oenothera caespitosa (Evening Primrose) Solanum species (nightshades)
Fragaria californica (woodland strawberry)
Keckiellia antirrhinoides (snapdragon)
These plants give off a sweet fragrance
Rosa species (rose)
Solanum species (nightshade)
These plants give off a sage-like fragrance
|Artemisia species (Sagebrush)
Juniperus species (juniper)
Lepechinia species (pitcher sage)
Salvia species (sage)
Trichostema species (wooly blue curls)
|BAYBERRY Myrica californica (CA sweet bay)
BAY-LIKE Umbellularia californica (CA bay-laurel)
INCENSE Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar)
INCENSE PLUS LAVENDER: Pinus Jeffreyi (Jeffery pine)
SPICY Calycanthus occidentalis (CA spicebush)
Ribes viburnifolium (vergreen current)
Ribes species (current)
WINE Calycanthus occidentalis (CA spicebush)
MINT Mentha arvensis (field mint)
Monardella species (CA pennyroyal)
Satureja species (Yerba Buena)
|Courtesy of Las Pilitas Nursery. Edited by Al Naydol with permission from Bert Wilson.|
The illustration below is a set of drawings Bonnie did for Dr. David Keil’s and my plant taxonomy text plus a new one of the plants’ growth form. These species grow in areas where the soil is at least seasonally wet. These species require lots of fresh water but are capable of surviving periodic short exposures to salt water. They are commonly called tule or bull-rush. These tall (usually over 6 ft. or 2 m) more or less grass-like perennial plants resemble spears or pikes as they have no apparent leaves. (Leaves, except for short ones just below the flowers, are restricted to sheaths at the base of the stem.) Their flowers are borne in clusters just below their often sharp tips. There is a potential problem with the two common names given.
These names have been used for members of two different genera from two separate plant families — the sedge (Cyperaceae) and the rush (Juncaceae) families. A look at Bonnie’s drawings will show that the illustrated plant is clearly a sedge. How does one know? When I first took a plant taxonomy course, I learned a little rhyme which aided in identification of the three common “grass-like” families — the rushes, sedges and grasses (Poaceae). It goes, “Rushes are round, sedges have edges, and grass comes in joints.” “The grass comes in joints” part is a corruption of what the rhyme historically said. Since I was in college in the sixties and the corruption dates from then, I never learned the correct, that is, original wording. Maybe someone can help me out. Bonnie has shown a stem cross section. Note that it is triangular although the “edges” are rounded. Further, the flower clusters are sedge-like, produced in minute elongate clusters called spikelets. Each tiny flower is hidden behind a single bract. In these species the perianth (sepals and petals), is represented by dry, flat ribbons. Because “rush” is the name commonly used for members of the Juncaceae, I prefer the name tule over bull-rush.
There are two species of tule commonly found in our coastal wetlands. They are the common tule, S. acutus and the California tule, S. californicus. According to Robert Hoover, a third species of tule (S. olneyi) with its very sharply triangular stems is “occasional in marshes near the coast and rare inland.” I’ve not actually identified this species so I know essentially nothing about it. The two common species are fairly easy to distinguish.
California tule has bright green stems that are bluntly triangular while common tule possesses a grey-green round stem. The illustration is of a California tule.
A word about the ‘S.’ or genus name in the two species binomials. According to Jan Timbrook (2007) in her book, Chumash Ethnobotany, the correct genus name, according the Flora of North America Project and presumably the new Jepson Manual when it is published, hopefully later this year, will be Schoenoplectus. However, none of the current floras use this name so Jan Timbrook decided to continue to use the long established name, Scirpus. Tules have two extensive chapters in Jan Timbrook’s book. She indicates the Chumash recognized two kinds of tule based on their cross sections — flat (actually not a tule but the cattail) and round, tule redondo. Some other tribes did acknowledge the difference between the triangular and round stem tule. As might be expected from two chapters devoted to one type of plant in an ethno-botany book, native people had many uses for the tule. Seeds, rhizomes, and young shoots were sometimes eaten although one source indicated that they felt gathering them for food (especially the seeds) was not worth the effort. The stems were bundled and the bundles overlapped to produce a thatching for Chumash dwellings. Bundles were also tied together in such a way to form a canoe-like water craft. Stems were also used extensively to form mats used in many ways. There are many other uses but I’ve not space to discuss them. However, I feel I have to mention one last use I did find intriguing. Poorer classes of women wove skirts out of tule because they couldn’t afford the animal skins used for clothing by the upper classes of Chumash. I guess I was naive enough to think sorting into economic classes was found only in modern economic and political systems.
Plant these natives to attract birds to your garden.
Don’t forget that insect eating birds will visit most of these plants when looking for spiders, gnats, flys, moths, etc.
|Genus/Species||Part Used||When||Specific Birds|
|Acacia Greggii||Seeds||Summer||Mourning Dove|
|Atriplex species||Leaves/Seeds||Sum/Fall||Finches, Quail, Sparrows, Towhees|
|Abies concolor||Leaves||All-year||Blue Grouse, Red Crossbill, Clark’s Nutcracker Pygmy Nuthatch|
|Acer macrophyllum||Seeds/Buds/Flowers||Spr/Sum/Fall||Evening Grosbeak, many others|
|Acer negundo||Same as macrophyllum in all categories|
|Seeds||Summer||Pine Siskin, Goldfinches|
|Alnus rubra||Same as rhombifolia all categories|
|Amelanchier alnifolia||Fruits||Summer||Many Species|
|Antirrhinum multiflorum||Flowers/Seeds||Spring/Sum||Hummingbirds & seed eaters|
|Arbutus menziesii||Fruit||Fall||Band-tailed Pigeon, Varied Thrush, Long Tailed Chat|
|Arctostaphylos species||Fruit||Sum/Fall||Jays, Grosbeaks, Mockingbirds, Fox Sparrow|
|Flowers||Late Win/Early||Sp. Hummingbirds|
|Artemisia species Leaves||All-Year||Sage||Grouse, Quail|
|Flowers /Seeds||Spr/Sum /Fall||Towhee|
|Asclepias species||Stems, nests||Spring||Orioles|
|Aster species||Seeds||Fall||Finches, Sparrows|
|Baccharis species||Seeds||Sum/Fall||Finches, Sparrows|
|Beloperon californica||Flowers||Spr/Sum||Hummingbirds, Finches, Sparrows|
|Cercis occidentalis||Seeds/Flowers||Spr/Fall||Hummingbirds, Gold Finches|
|Cercocarpus species||Seeds/Leaves||Sum/Fall||Blue Grouse|
|Chilopsis linearis||Seeds/Flowers||Spr/Fall||Hummingbirds, Doves|
|Chrysothamnus species||Seeds||Sum/Fall||Finches, Quail, Pine Siskin|
|Comarostaphylis diversifolia||Flowers/Fruits||Spr/Sum/Fall||MANY SPECIES!|
|Cornus species||Flowers/Fruits||Spr/Sum/Fall||MANY SPECIES!|
|Cupressus species||Seeds||Sum/Fall||Red-breasted Nuthatch & others|
|Mimulus (Diplacus) species||Flowers||Spr/Sum||Hummingbirds|
|Eleocharis species||Seeds/Culms/Tubers||Fall||Ducks, Teals,Geese, Scaups, Swans, Rails, Sandpipers, Snipe|
|Encelia californica||Seeds||Spr/Fall||Sparrows, Finches|
|Equisetum species||Stems/Rootstocks||All-Year||Geese, Swans, Waterfowl|
|Eriogonum species||Leaves/Seeds||All-Year||Finches, Juncos, Sparrows, Towhees|
|Forestiera neomexicana||Fruit||Summer||Quail, Robin, Other Fruit Eating Birds|
|Fragaria species||Leaves/Fruit||All-Year||MANY SPECIES!|
|Fraxinus species||Seeds||Fall||Quail, Finches, Grosbeaks, Cedar Waxwings, Wood Ducks|
|Geranium species||Seeds||Summer||Doves, Quail, Towhees|
|Helianthus species||Seeds||Fall||Seed eating birds, Goldfinches, Bush Tits|
|Heteromeles arbutifolia||Berries||Winter||Blue Birds, Robins, Band-tailed Pigeon|
|Lavatera assurgentiflora||Flowers/Seeds||Sum/Fall||Hummingbirds/Seed eaters|
|Lonicera species||Flowers/Berries||Spr/Sum/Fall||Hummingbirds, Towhees, Robins, Thrashers, Bluebird|
|Lupinus species||Seeds||Summer||Quail, Dove|
|Mahonia nevinii||Berries||Summer||Bluebirds, Thrashers, Robins, Towhee|
|Mahonia aquifolium||Berries||Summer||Thrashers, Robins, Towhees, Others|
|Malacothamnus species||Seeds||Fall||Bush Tits/Others|
|Pinus species||Seeds/Bark||All-Year||Jays, Nuthatches, Many species!|
|Platanus racemosa||Fuzz/Seeds||Spr/Winter||Seed eaters, fuzz used by Hummers for nesting|
|Prunus species||Berries||Summer||Jays, many others|
|Quercus species||Seeds||Fall/Winter||Jays, Hummers, Many species!|
|Rhamnus species||Berries||Summer||Jays, Thrashers, Berry eaters!|
|Rhus species||Berries||Spr/Sum||Thrashers,Towhees, Many species|
|Ribes viburnifolium||Berries/Flowers||Win/Sum||Hummingbirds, Thrashers, Towhees|
|Ribes species||Berries/Flowers||Win/Sum||Hummingbirds, Jays, Thrashers, others|
|Rosa species||Hips||Sum/Fall||Thrashers,Towhees Jays,Others|
|Salix species||Insects/Catkins||All-Year||Many Species Use Galls|
|Salvia species||Flowers/Seeds||Spr/Fall||Hummingbirds, Seed eaters|
|Sambucus species||Berries/Flowers||All-Year||Many, Many Species|
|Scrophularia species||Flowers/Seeds||Spr/Sum||Hummingbirds, Seed eaters|
|Shepherdia argentea||Berries||Summer||Berry eaters|
|Sidalcea species||Seeds||Summer||Thrashers, Seed Eaters|
|Solanum species||Berries||Summer||Berry eaters|
|Washington Filifera||Dates||Sum/Fall||Cedar Waxwings, Others|
Reference: Las Pilitas Nursery, with permission of Bert Wilson. Edited by Al Naydol and members of the San Luis Obispo Chapter of the California Native Plant Society.
To attract butterflies it is important to have two types of plants growing in your yard or your general area:
1) food plants for the larvae (caterpillars), and
2) nectar plants for adult butterflies.
The most important plants for caterpillars are buckwheat, California lilac (Ceanothus), deerweed and milk vetch and lupines, mallows, oaks, rock cress and other mustards, and grasses. Unless you provide larval food plants in your garden or nearby, the number of adult butterflies will be limited.
The butterflies of San Luis Obispo County are listed below, with the host/food plant of the caterpillar. In most cases food of the adult butterfly is also given, that is, the nectar plant. Adults may use the host plant or not. They generally visit many flowers, not just these reported ones.
Compiled by George Butterworth, California Native Plant Society, © 2007. Bold letters = common. Groups and species are in alphabetical order, not taxonomic. Nearly all the plants given are California natives.
|California sister. Coast & canyon live oak. Adults use rotting fruit, dung, sap; rarely flowers.Lorquin’s admiral. Willows, cottonwoods, chokecherry. Adults: buckeye, yerba santa, Calif. lilac, mint, sap, fruit, dung.
Red admiral. Nettles, eg hoary; pellitory. Adults: sap, rotting fruit; composites, bur marigold, milkweed, stonecrop, mint.
|Acmon blue. Buckwheats; legumes: deerweed, lupine, Spanish lotus, milk vetch, clover; milkweed. Adults: rabbitbrush, coyote brush, marsh baccharis, heliotrope, buckwheat.
Arrowhead blue. Lupines (eg bush), milk vetch. Adults: hosts; also buckwheat, yerba santa, mint, vetch, dogbane.
Bernardino blue. Buckwheats, eg Calif., sulfur, coast. Adults: same. Our square-spotted blues are here (Opler database).
Boisduval’s blue. Lupines, buckwheat. Adults use buckwheat too, and composites.
Lupine blue. California, sulfur, and other buckwheats. Adults use the host plants, and pussy paws.
Marine blue. Legumes: milk vetch, clover, wild pea, deerweed; leadwort. Adults: wild licorice, probably other hosts.
Pacific dotted blue. Buckwheats: sulfur, nude, & inflated. Adults use them too.
San Emigdio blue. 4-wing saltbush. Nectar: heliotrope.
Silvery blue. Legumes: lupines, vetches, wild pea, milk vetch, lotus, deerweed. Adults: composites, lupine, fiddleneck.
Sonoran blue. Dudleya. Adults: fiddleneck, brodiaea.
Bramble green hairstreak Bill Bouton
Spring azure (echo). Dogwood, oaks, Chinese houses, Calif. lilac, buckeye, Calif. aster. Adults: Calif. lilac, rock cress, milkweed, willow, violet.
Western pygmy blue. Saltbush (eg 4-wing, quailbush, spear oracle), sea blite, pickleweed, pigweed. Nectar: coyote brush, rabbitbrush, golden rod, aster.
Western tailed blue. Legumes like milk vetch, lotus, vetch (eg giant), wild pea. Adults: host plants, and buckwheat, pussy paws, yerba santa, composites, dogbane.
|BUCKEYE||Common buckeye. Plantains, snapdragon, monkey flower, owl’s clover; blue toadflax, verbena, pine. Adults: coreopsis, aster, rabbitbrush, coyote brush; mint, buckwheat, plantain, heliotrope, buckeye, sage, marsh baccharis.|
|CHECKERSPOTS||Edith’s checkerspot. Many in the figwort family, eg paintbrush; valerian, honeysuckle, plantain (Plantago erecta). Adults: pincushion, yerba santa, milkweed.
Gabb’s checkerspot. California aster, telegraph weed, sawtooth goldenbush.
Leanira checkerspot. Paintbrush, bird’s beak. Nectar: yellow composites, nude buckwheat, coyote mint, yerba santa.
Variable checkerspot. Paintbrush, beardtongue, sticky monkey flower, Calif. figwort; snowberry, others. Nectar: yerba santa, buckwheat, globe gilia, daisy, mint, many others.
|COMMAS (ANGLEWINGS)||Oreas comma. Straggly gooseberry. Adults take sap.
Satyr comma. Nettles, eg hoary nettle. Adults: sap, fruit.
|Gorgon copper. Long-stem, nude buckwheats. Adults: host plants, and woolly sunflower, milkweed.
Great copper. Docks, eg wild rhubarb. Nectar: gumplant, heliotrope, dogbane, white umbels.
Purplish copper. Docks, knotweeds like willow weed, smartweed; cinquefoils, horkelia. Adults: heliotrope, aster, coyote brush.
Tailed copper. Gooseberries, currants. Adults use composites, asters, nude buckwheat.
|CRESCENTS||Mylitta crescent. Thistles. Adults use asters, thistles, rabbitbrush, buckwheats, yerba santa, heliotrope.|
|DUSKYWINGS, CLOUDY- AND SOOTYWINGS||Common sooty wing. Pigweed, amaranth, mallow, ambrosia. Adults use milkweed, heliotrope, clover.
Funereal dusky-wing. Many legumes, eg deerweed. Adults use sunflowers, buckwheat, yerba santa.
Mojave sooty-wing. Saltbush, eg 4 wing.
Mournful dusky-wing. Oaks: live, blue, valley. Adults: yerba santa, buckeye, verbena, buckwheats, sage, mint.
Northern cloudy-wing. Legumes like milk vetch, clover, lotus, false indigo, vetch. Adults use mints, vetches, thistles, milkweed, dogbane, yerba santa, brodiaea, buckeye.
Pacuvius dusky-wing. Calif. lilac, eg buck brush & Jim brush. Adults use the same, and yellow composites.
Propertius dusky-wing. Oaks, eg coast live and Oregon. Adults use blue dicks, yerba santa, Calif. lilac, vetches, phacelia, fiddleneck, buckeye, dogbane.
Sleepy dusky-wing. Oaks, especially leather. Adults use verbena, redbud, heaths, composites, wild onions.
|FRITILLARIES||Callippe fritillary. Violets. Adults take nectar from yerba santa, buckwheat, coyote mint, sage.
Coronis fritillary. Violets. Adults use aster, rabbitbrush, goldenrod, thistle; yerba santa, mint, buckeye, sage.
Gulf fritillary. Passion vines (alien). Adults use daisies, thistles.
Bramble green hairstreak (western green). Buckwheats, legumes like deer weed; Calif. lilac. Nectar: yerba santa, Calif. buckwheat, buckeye, dogbane.
Brown elfin. Manzanita, buck brush, madrone, salal, soap plant, dodder, many others. Adults use Calif. buckwheat, willow, redbud, yerba santa.
California hairstreak. Oaks mainly; also buck brush, mountain mahogany, deer brush. Nectar: yerba santa, milkweed, dogbane, buckwheat.
Gold-hunter’s hairstreak. Oaks, esp. blue and scrub; also interior live. Nectar: buckeye, buckwheat (eg nude), dogbane, milkweed, yerba santa.
Golden hairstreak. Canyon live oak, chinquapin, tan oak. No flower nectar taken; food unknown.
Gray hairstreak. Legumes, mallows, buckwheats, chamise, many others. Adults visit numerous flowers.
Great purple hairstreak. Mistletoe. Adults: buckwheat, umbels, composites, buckeye, milkweed.
Hedgerow hairstreak. Calif. lilacs, esp. buck brush; mountain mahogany. Adults use the same, plus buckwheat, dogbane, yerba santa.
Juniper hairstreak (siva). California juniper. Adults: goldenbush, yarrow, buckwheat (eg sulfur), tansy mustard, milkweed.
Moss’s elfin. Stonecrop, dudleya.
Mountain mahogany hairstreak. Mountain mahogany. Nectar: Calif. buckwheat, yerba santa, milkweed.
Muir’s hairstreak. Sargeant cypress. Adults: Calif. lilac.
Sylvan hairstreak. Willows. Adults use milkweed.
Thicket hairstreak. Pine mistletoe. Adults use rabbitbrush.
|American lady. Everlastings, pussy-toes. Nectar: yerba santa, thistles, marsh baccharis, aster, buckwheat, milkweed.
Painted lady. Thistles, mallows, legumes, nettle, borages (eg fiddleneck). Nectar: composites (eg aster, thistles), buckwheat, yerba santa, mint, borages, lobelia.
West Coast lady. Mallows (eg checker mallow, island mallow), nettles. Nectar: thistles, yerba santa, buckwheat, mallow, mint, sage, milkweed.
|MARBLES||California marble (pearly). Mustards like jewelflower, tansy mustard, rock cress. Adults use the same, plus pussy paws.
Large marble. Mustards like rock cress (eg tower mustard), wall flower, tansy mustard. Adults: mustards, fiddleneck, brodiaea.
|METALMARKS||Behr’s metalmark. Calif. buckwheat. Adults: buckwheat.
Mormon metalmark. Buckwheats like Calif., inflated, coast, and nude. Adults: buckwheats; also aster, senecio, rabbitbrush.
|MILKWEEDS /MONARCH||Monarch. Milkweed. Adults: mint, milkweed, composites (eg sunflower, mulefat), manzanita, mallow.
Queen. Milkweed. Nectar: sunflowers, milkweed.
|ORANGETIPS||Desert orangetip. Mustards like tansy mustard, rock cress, jewelflower, desert candle.
Pacific (Sara) orangetip. Mustards, eg tower mustard, tansy mustard, lace pod. Adults: host plants, plus thistle, fiddleneck, brodiaea, buckeye, blue dicks, yerba santa.
|SATYRS||Common ringlet. Grasses like perennial fescue (maybe red or
Calif.) Adults use flowers.
Great Basin wood nymph. Grasses like perennial fescue (maybe red or Calif.) Adults use composites, buckeye, Calif. and nude buckwheat.
|SKIPPERS||Columbian skipper. Junegrass, oatgrass. Adults use rabbitbrush, goldenrod.
Common checkered-skipper. Monterey Co., maybe here. Mallows. Adults use aster, fleabane, rabbitbrush.
Eufala skipper. Grasses like bermuda. Nectar: vetch, composites, croton, heliotrope.
Fiery skipper. Bermuda grass, crabgrass, others. Nectar: composites, verbena.
Lindsey’s skipper. Native grasses like fescue, oatgrass. Adults visit clarkia, mule ears.
Northern white-skipper. Mallows like bush mallow. Adults use lobelia, yerba santa, composites, mints, buckwheat.
Rural skipper. Grasses like melic; horkelia. Adults: buckeye.
Sachem. Bermuda grass, crabgrass. Adults: milkweed, verbena; rabbitbrush, sunflower, thistle, coyote brush.
Sandhill skipper. Grasses like saltgrass, bermuda. Adults use aster, heliotrope.
Silver-spotted skipper. Legumes: locust, wild licorice, false indigo, lotus. Nectar: honeysuckle, milkweed, thistle, yerba santa, vetch, buckeye, dogbane.
Small checkered-skipper. Mallows like alkali mallow. Adults: mints, milkweed, composites, heliotrope.
Two-banded checkered-skipper. Horkelia, cinquefoil. Adults use pussy paws.
Umber skipper. Grasses, eg hairgrass; sedge. Adults use thistles, coyote brush, yerba santa, milkweed, buckeye.
Western branded skipper. Grasses, eg bluegrass, needlegrass, fescue; sedges. Adults use asters, thistles, mint, buckwheat, yerba santa.
White checkered-skipper. Mallows like alkali mallow.
Woodland skipper. Tall broad-leaf grasses, eg wild rye. Adults use asters, thistles, everlasting, rabbitbrush, coyote brush, dogbane.
California dogface. False indigo, other legumes. Adults: yerba santa, buckeye, thistle, verbena, woolly blue curls, sage, mint, hedge nettle, Calif. fuchsia.
Cloudless sulphur. Senna. Nectar: thistle, morning glory.
Harford’s sulfur. Douglas milkvetch, deerweed, lupine. Nectar plants: thistle, mint.
Orange sulfur (alfalfa). Legumes: vetches, clovers, milk vetch, deerweed. Adults use milkweed, aster.
Southern dogface. Legumes, eg clovers, false indigo. Adults use coreopsis, verbena.
Sleepy orange. Sennas. Adults use bur marigold, daisies.
Anise swallowtail. Umbels, eg anise (non-native), Tauschia, Lomatium. Adults visit a vast array of flowers.
Pale swallowtail. Rose family, eg holly-leaf cherry; buckthorns, eg redberry, coffeeberry, Calif. lilac (eg buck brush). Adults: wallflower, yerba santa, thistle, mint, lilies, Ithuriel’s spear, blue dicks.
Western tiger swallowtail. Cottonwood, willow, sycamore, ash, alder trees. Nectar: composites, lilies, thistles, yerba santa, milkweed, coyote mint, buckeye, dogbane, lobelia, sage.
|California tortoiseshell. Calif. lilacs, eg buck brush, blue blossom. Adults: flowers (eg manzanita), fruit, sap.
Milbert’s tortoiseshell. Nettles. Adults: fruit, thistle, daisies, rabbitbrush, aster, coyote mint, chokecherry.
Mourning cloak. Willows, cottonwoods. Adults: oak sap, fruit, willow, composites, rabbitbrush.
|Becker’s white. Mustards, eg prince’s plume; bladderpod. Nectar: mustards, rabbitbrush, aster, goldenrod.
Cabbage white. Non-native. Many mustards, eg crops. Adults use mustards, mint, composites.
Checkered white. Many mustards, eg peppergrass. Nectar: mustards, composites, aster, daisy, milkweed, legumes.
Margined white. Mustards, eg toothwort, rock cress, water cress. Adults use mustards.
Spring white. Mustards, eg rock cress, jewel flower, tansy mustard, lace pod. Adults use a variety of flowers.
TOTALS: 99 species (49 common)
Insecticides and herbicides are very harmful.
IMPORTANT NECTAR PLANTS (adapted from lists by Las Pilitas Nursery and Paul Opler)
In order to have adult butterflies in your garden for the longest period of time (spring to fall) you must have plants flowering continuously. Thus the nectar plants below are very important. They are given in approximate order of flowering time, beginning with March. You may have to revise these for your own place, according to zone, soil, etc.
|Globe gilia. Gilia capitata.||Hedge nettle. Stachys.|
|Pincushion. Chaenactis, eg glabriuscula.||Saw-tooth goldenbush. Hazardia squarrosa.|
|Seaside daisy. Erigeron glaucus.||Verbena. Verbena lasiostachys.|
|Yerba santa. Eriodictyon californicum.||Woolly blue curls. Trichostema lanatum.|
|Sunflower. Helianthus gracilentus.||Thistle. Cirsium, eg occidentale var venustum.|
|Sage. Salvia, eg mellifera, spathacea.||Desert willow. Chiloposis linearis.|
|Mock orange. Philadelphus lewisii.||Milkweed. Asclepias eriocarpa, fascicularis.|
|Tree anemone. Carpenteria californica.||Buckwheat. Eriogonum elongatum, latifolium, nudum, roseum.|
|Buckwheat. Eriogonum fasciculatum.||California fuschia. Epilobium canum.|
|Mint. Monardella.||Rabbitbrush. Chrysothamnus nauseosus.|
Aster Aster, eg chilensis. Calif. aster— Lessingia filaginifolia.
Beardtongue Penstemon, eg centranthifolius, heterophyllus
Buck brush Ceanothus cuneatus
Buckwheat Eriogonum elongatum (long stem), fasciculatum (Calif.), latifolium (coast), nudum (nude), roseum (rosy), trichopes (inflated), umbellatum (sulfur).
California lilac Ceanothus, eg cuneatus, griseus, maritimus, thyrsiflorus
Daisy Erigeron, esp. glaucus, foliosus
Deerweed Lotus scoparius
Dock Rumex hymenosepalus, maritimus, or salicifolius
Everlasting Anaphalis; Gnaphalium, eg californicum, canescens
False indigo Amorpha california
Fescue Festuca californica, elmeri, rubra (red)
Figwort Scrophulariaceae. Scrophularia atrata or californica
Fleabane Erigeron, eg glaucus, foliosus
Legumes Fabaceae, pea family
Lotus Lotus scoparius; and L. purshianus (Spanish lotus), others
Mallow Malvaceae . Eremalche parryi; Lavatera (tree mallow); Malacothamnus jonesii, palmeri, davidsonii (bush mallows); Malvella leprosa (alkali mallow); Sidalcea diploscypha, malvaeflora, hickmanii (checker mallows).
Milkweed Asclepias fascicularis (narrow leaf), eriocarpa (Indian)
Milk vetch Astragalus curtipes, douglasii, macrodon, nuttallii,
(locoweed) oxyphysus, trichopodus
Mint Lamiaceae: Agastache urticifolia; Mentha arvensis; Monardella, eg antonina, frutescens, palmeri, villosa; Stachys; Trichostema lanatum
Nettle mainly Urtica dioica
Pigweed Chenopodium esp. californicum
Plantain Plantago elongata, erecta, maritima, subnuda
Rock cress Arabis glabra; also pulchra, sparsiflora
Sage Salvia carduacea, leucophylla, mellifera, spathacea
Snapdragon Antirrhinum, eg kelloggii, multiflorum
Soap plant Chlorogalum pomeridianum
Sunflower Helianthus gracilentus, plus annuals annuus, bolanderi
Thistle Cirsium, eg brevistylum, occidentale
Tower mustard Arabis glabra
Umbels Apiaceae, carrot family
Vetch Vicia americana, gigantea, hassei
Violet Viola, esp. V. pedunculata
Wild pea Lathyrus jepsonii, vestitus
Yerba Santa Eriodictyon californicum, tomentosum, traskiae
“Art Shapiro’s Butterfly Site,” 2006, [butterfly.ucdavis.edu] Brock & Kaufman, Butterflies of North America, 2003.
Bouton, Bill, personal communication
Garth and Tilden, California Butterflies, 1986.
Glasberg, Jeffrey, Butterflies Through Binoculars, the West, 2001.
Heath, Fred, An Introduction to Southern California Butterflies, 2004.
Hickman, The Jepson Manual, 1993.
Hoover, The Vascular Plants of San Luis Obispo County, 1970.
Las Pilitas Nursery, [laspilitas.com]
Naydol, Al, “California Native Plants for Butterfly Gardening”, 2002.
Opler, Paul, “Butterflies and Moths of North America,” database, 2006. [butterfliesandmoths.org]
Opler & Wright, Western Butterflies (Peterson Guide), 1999
Pyle, Robert, National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies, 1981.
Sedenko, Jerry, The Butterfly Garden, 1991