Gardening in deer-prone areas

Gardening in deer-prone areas

This article helps you determine if you have a low, moderate, or high level of “browse” and suggests the appropriate methods for combating the problem.

Also included is a  brief list of plants that have shown some success when gardening in deer-prone areas.

(more…)

Honeybees and Native Plants

Honeybees and Native Plants

Honeybee on clover, New Zealand

By Andy Murray (New Zealand honey bee on clover) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

It’s no secret, honeybees are not doing well. There are many scientists and researchers working on this problem. At this time there is not a clear cut answer to what is causing what is called “Colony Collapse Disorder” or CCD. Some scientists believe a small parasitic mite is the culprit. Others believe the lack of rain the last three years has impacted wildflower fields and the honeybees are dying from starvation. Lastly, pesticides applied by homeowners and farmers to fruit and vegetables crops are harming bees as they forage for pollen.

So what can we do to help? With winter just around the corner and the possibility of rains, we are once again thinking about what should we plant this year. Keeping the bees in mind, I would like to make some suggestions.

The genus Ceanothus is my first pick. With flower colors of blue and white, the sweet smell draws bees by the thousands. It’s not hard to find a species that can fit in your garden. There are large tree types, shrubs, and groundcovers to pick from. They must be planted in a sunny area.

My second choice is the genus Salvia. Many Salvia species grow in sandy, dry soil types and are well know to attract bees. They do not require heavy irrigation and are free of many pest problems.

Lastly, Eriogonum or buckwheat is a wonderful plant that will grow in many soil types and requires very little irrigation once established. My favorites are E. arborescens, Santa Cruz Island buckwheat, and E. giganteum, St. Catherine’s lace.

So this year while you are thinking about what to plant in the garden, I hope you will consider what you can do to help the little bee.

John Nowak

Native Plants with Fragrance

Native Plants with Fragrance

FRAGRANT CALIFORNIA NATIVE PLANTS
FOR THE GARDEN

download

Gardening for fragrance opens up another dimension of gardening. You can be whisked back to another place and time or other remembrances by the fragrances given off by your plantings. Once you start noticing aromas, you will quickly come up with your own favorites. Since everyone’s sense of smell is different, fragrances are open to different interpretations.

Photo courtesy of Gerald and Buff Corsi
© California Academy of Sciences

 

These plants are fragrant when you are near

Brickellia californica

Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar)

Oenothera caespitosa (evening primrose)

Philadelphus lewisii (mock orange)

Pinus Jeffreyi (Jeffery Pine)

Ribes viburnifolium (evergreen current)

Salvia Clevelandii (Cleveland sage)

Solanum species (nightshade)

These plants are fragrant when you are very close

Calycanthus occidentalis (spice bush)

Carpenteria californica

Fragaria californica (Woodland strawberry)

Keckiella antirrhinoides (snap dragon)

Rosa species (rose)

These plants give off scent when you brush against

Artemisia species (sagebrush)

Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar)

Cupressus species (cedars)

Juniperus species (junipers)

Lepechinia species (pitcher sage)

Mentha arvensis (mint)

Monardella species (Ca. pennyroyal)

Myrica californica (Ca sweet bay)

Ribes species (currants)

Salvia species (sages)

Satureja species (Yerba Buena)

Trichostema lanatum (wooly blue curls)

Umbellularia californica (Ca bay-laurel)

These plants are fragrant at dusk or night

Oenothera caespitosa (Evening Primrose) Solanum species (nightshades)

Carpenteria californica

Fragaria californica (woodland strawberry)

Keckiellia antirrhinoides (snapdragon)

These plants give off a sweet fragrance

Brickellia californica

Philadelphus lewisii

Rosa species (rose)

Solanum species (nightshade)

These plants give off a sage-like fragrance

Artemisia species (Sagebrush)

Juniperus species (juniper)

Lepechinia species (pitcher sage)

Salvia species (sage)

Trichostema species (wooly blue curls)

Miscellaneous fragrances

BAYBERRY Myrica californica (CA sweet bay)

BAY-LIKE Umbellularia californica (CA bay-laurel)

INCENSE Calocedrus decurrens (incense cedar)

INCENSE PLUS LAVENDER: Pinus Jeffreyi (Jeffery pine)

SPICY Calycanthus occidentalis (CA spicebush)

Ribes viburnifolium (vergreen current)

Ribes species (current)

WINE Calycanthus occidentalis (CA spicebush)

MINT Mentha arvensis (field mint)

Monardella species (CA pennyroyal)

Satureja species (Yerba Buena)

Courtesy of Las Pilitas Nursery. Edited by Al Naydol with permission from Bert Wilson.
California Native Plants that Attract Birds

California Native Plants that Attract Birds

download

Plant these natives to attract birds to your garden.

Don’t forget that insect eating birds will visit most of these plants when looking for spiders, gnats, flys, moths, etc.

Genus/Species Part Used When Specific Birds
Acacia Greggii Seeds Summer Mourning Dove
Atriplex species Leaves/Seeds Sum/Fall Finches, Quail, Sparrows, Towhees
Abies concolor Leaves All-year Blue Grouse, Red Crossbill, Clark’s Nutcracker Pygmy Nuthatch
Acer macrophyllum Seeds/Buds/Flowers Spr/Sum/Fall Evening Grosbeak, many others
Acer negundo Same as macrophyllum in all categories
Achillea borealis. Seeds Summer Goldfinches
Adenostoma fasciculatum Seeds Summer Goldfinches
Alnus rhombifolia Nesting Spring Warblers
Seeds Summer Pine Siskin, Goldfinches
Buds Spring Cedar Waxwings
Alnus rubra Same as rhombifolia all categories
Amelanchier alnifolia Fruits Summer Many Species
Antirrhinum multiflorum Flowers/Seeds Spring/Sum Hummingbirds & seed eaters
Aquilegia species Flowers Spring/Sum Hummingbirds
Arbutus menziesii Fruit Fall Band-tailed Pigeon, Varied Thrush, Long Tailed Chat
Arctostaphylos species Fruit Sum/Fall Jays, Grosbeaks, Mockingbirds, Fox Sparrow
Flowers Late Win/Early Sp. Hummingbirds
Artemisia species Leaves All-Year Sage Grouse, Quail
Flowers /Seeds Spr/Sum /Fall Towhee
Asclepias species Stems, nests Spring Orioles
Aster species Seeds Fall Finches, Sparrows
Baccharis species Seeds Sum/Fall Finches, Sparrows
Beloperon californica Flowers Spr/Sum Hummingbirds, Finches, Sparrows
Ceanothus species Seeds Sum/Fall Quail
Cephalanthus occidentalis Seeds Sum/Fall Ducks
Cercis occidentalis Seeds/Flowers Spr/Fall Hummingbirds, Gold Finches
Cercocarpus species Seeds/Leaves Sum/Fall Blue Grouse
Chilopsis linearis Seeds/Flowers Spr/Fall Hummingbirds, Doves
Chrysothamnus species Seeds Sum/Fall Finches, Quail, Pine Siskin
Comarostaphylis diversifolia Flowers/Fruits Spr/Sum/Fall MANY SPECIES!
Cornus species Flowers/Fruits Spr/Sum/Fall MANY SPECIES!
Cupressus species Seeds Sum/Fall Red-breasted Nuthatch & others
Delphinium cardinale Flowers Spr/Sum Hummingbirds
Mimulus (Diplacus) species Flowers Spr/Sum Hummingbirds
Dudleya species Flowers Spr/Sum Hummingbirds
Eleocharis species Seeds/Culms/Tubers Fall Ducks, Teals,Geese, Scaups, Swans, Rails, Sandpipers, Snipe
Encelia californica Seeds Spr/Fall Sparrows, Finches
Equisetum species Stems/Rootstocks All-Year Geese, Swans, Waterfowl
Eriogonum species Leaves/Seeds All-Year Finches, Juncos, Sparrows, Towhees
Eschscholzia species Seeds Summer Quail
Forestiera neomexicana Fruit Summer Quail, Robin, Other Fruit Eating Birds
Fragaria species Leaves/Fruit All-Year MANY SPECIES!
Fraxinus species Seeds Fall Quail, Finches, Grosbeaks, Cedar Waxwings, Wood Ducks
Galvezia speciosa Flowers Spring Hummingbirds
Geranium species Seeds Summer Doves, Quail, Towhees
Helianthus species Seeds Fall Seed eating birds, Goldfinches, Bush Tits
Heteromeles arbutifolia Berries Winter Blue Birds, Robins, Band-tailed Pigeon
Heuchera maxima Flowers Spring Hummingbirds
Juglans californica Nuts Winter Jays
Keckiella species Flowers Spr/Summer Hummingbirds
Lavatera assurgentiflora Flowers/Seeds Sum/Fall Hummingbirds/Seed eaters
Lepechinia calycina Flowers Summer Hummingbirds
Lonicera species Flowers/Berries Spr/Sum/Fall Hummingbirds, Towhees, Robins, Thrashers, Bluebird
Lupinus species Seeds Summer Quail, Dove
Mahonia nevinii Berries Summer Bluebirds, Thrashers, Robins, Towhee
Mahonia aquifolium Berries Summer Thrashers, Robins, Towhees, Others
Malacothamnus species Seeds Fall Bush Tits/Others
Mimulus species Flowers Summer Hummingbirds
Monardella species Flowers Summer Hummingbirds
Penstemons species Flowers Spr/Sum Hummingbirds
Pinus species Seeds/Bark All-Year Jays, Nuthatches, Many species!
Platanus racemosa Fuzz/Seeds Spr/Winter Seed eaters, fuzz used by Hummers for nesting
Prunus species Berries Summer Jays, many others
Quercus species Seeds Fall/Winter Jays, Hummers, Many species!
Rhamnus species Berries Summer Jays, Thrashers, Berry eaters!
Rhus species Berries Spr/Sum Thrashers,Towhees, Many species
Ribes viburnifolium Berries/Flowers Win/Sum Hummingbirds, Thrashers, Towhees
Ribes species Berries/Flowers Win/Sum Hummingbirds, Jays, Thrashers, others
Rosa species Hips Sum/Fall Thrashers,Towhees Jays,Others
Salix species Insects/Catkins All-Year Many Species Use Galls
Salvia species Flowers/Seeds Spr/Fall Hummingbirds, Seed eaters
Sambucus species Berries/Flowers All-Year Many, Many Species
Scrophularia species Flowers/Seeds Spr/Sum Hummingbirds, Seed eaters
Shepherdia argentea Berries Summer Berry eaters
Sidalcea species Seeds Summer Thrashers, Seed Eaters
Solanum species Berries Summer Berry eaters
Stachys species Flowers Summer Hummingbirds
Trichostema lanatum Flowers Summer Hummingbirds
Washington Filifera Dates Sum/Fall Cedar Waxwings, Others
Epilobium (Zauschneria)sp. Flowers Sum/Fall Hummingbirds

Reference: Las Pilitas Nursery, with permission of Bert Wilson. Edited by Al Naydol and members of the San Luis Obispo Chapter of the California Native Plant Society.

Plants that Attract Butterflies

Plants that Attract Butterflies

download

To attract butterflies it is important to have two types of plants growing in your yard or your general area:

1) food plants for the larvae (caterpillars), and

2) nectar plants for adult butterflies.

The most important plants for caterpillars are buckwheat, California lilac (Ceanothus), deerweed and milk vetch and lupines, mallows, oaks, rock cress and other mustards, and grasses. Unless you provide larval food plants in your garden or nearby, the number of adult butterflies will be limited.

The butterflies of San Luis Obispo County are listed below, with the host/food plant of the caterpillar. In most cases food of the adult butterfly is also given, that is, the nectar plant. Adults may use the host plant or not. They generally visit many flowers, not just these reported ones.

Compiled by George Butterworth, California Native Plant Society, © 2007. Bold letters = common. Groups and species are in alphabetical order, not taxonomic. Nearly all the plants given are California natives.

 

ADMIRALS

 

California sister. Coast & canyon live oak. Adults use rotting fruit, dung, sap; rarely flowers.Lorquin’s admiral. Willows, cottonwoods, chokecherry. Adults: buckeye, yerba santa, Calif. lilac, mint, sap, fruit, dung.

Red admiral. Nettles, eg hoary; pellitory. Adults: sap, rotting fruit; composites, bur marigold, milkweed, stonecrop, mint.

BLUES

 

Acmon blue. Buckwheats; legumes: deerweed, lupine, Spanish lotus, milk vetch, clover; milkweed. Adults: rabbitbrush, coyote brush, marsh baccharis, heliotrope, buckwheat.

Arrowhead blue. Lupines (eg bush), milk vetch. Adults: hosts; also buckwheat, yerba santa, mint, vetch, dogbane.

Bernardino blue. Buckwheats, eg Calif., sulfur, coast. Adults: same. Our square-spotted blues are here (Opler database).

Boisduval’s blue. Lupines, buckwheat. Adults use buckwheat too, and composites.

Lupine blue. California, sulfur, and other buckwheats. Adults use the host plants, and pussy paws.

Marine blue. Legumes: milk vetch, clover, wild pea, deerweed; leadwort. Adults: wild licorice, probably other hosts.

Pacific dotted blue. Buckwheats: sulfur, nude, & inflated. Adults use them too.

San Emigdio blue. 4-wing saltbush. Nectar: heliotrope.

Silvery blue. Legumes: lupines, vetches, wild pea, milk vetch, lotus, deerweed. Adults: composites, lupine, fiddleneck.

Sonoran blue. Dudleya. Adults: fiddleneck, brodiaea.

Bramble green hairstreak Bill Bouton

Spring azure (echo). Dogwood, oaks, Chinese houses, Calif. lilac, buckeye, Calif. aster. Adults: Calif. lilac, rock cress, milkweed, willow, violet.

Western pygmy blue. Saltbush (eg 4-wing, quailbush, spear oracle), sea blite, pickleweed, pigweed. Nectar: coyote brush, rabbitbrush, golden rod, aster.

Western tailed blue. Legumes like milk vetch, lotus, vetch (eg giant), wild pea. Adults: host plants, and buckwheat, pussy paws, yerba santa, composites, dogbane.

BUCKEYE Common buckeye. Plantains, snapdragon, monkey flower, owl’s clover; blue toadflax, verbena, pine. Adults: coreopsis, aster, rabbitbrush, coyote brush; mint, buckwheat, plantain, heliotrope, buckeye, sage, marsh baccharis.
CHECKERSPOTS Edith’s checkerspot. Many in the figwort family, eg paintbrush; valerian, honeysuckle, plantain (Plantago erecta). Adults: pincushion, yerba santa, milkweed.

Gabb’s checkerspot. California aster, telegraph weed, sawtooth goldenbush.

Leanira checkerspot. Paintbrush, bird’s beak. Nectar: yellow composites, nude buckwheat, coyote mint, yerba santa.

Variable checkerspot. Paintbrush, beardtongue, sticky monkey flower, Calif. figwort; snowberry, others. Nectar: yerba santa, buckwheat, globe gilia, daisy, mint, many others.

COMMAS (ANGLEWINGS) Oreas comma. Straggly gooseberry. Adults take sap.

Satyr comma. Nettles, eg hoary nettle. Adults: sap, fruit.

COPPERS

 

Gorgon copper. Long-stem, nude buckwheats. Adults: host plants, and woolly sunflower, milkweed.

Great copper. Docks, eg wild rhubarb. Nectar: gumplant, heliotrope, dogbane, white umbels.

Purplish copper. Docks, knotweeds like willow weed, smartweed; cinquefoils, horkelia. Adults: heliotrope, aster, coyote brush.

Tailed copper. Gooseberries, currants. Adults use composites, asters, nude buckwheat.

CRESCENTS Mylitta crescent. Thistles. Adults use asters, thistles, rabbitbrush, buckwheats, yerba santa, heliotrope.
DUSKYWINGS, CLOUDY- AND SOOTYWINGS Common sooty wing. Pigweed, amaranth, mallow, ambrosia. Adults use milkweed, heliotrope, clover.

Funereal dusky-wing. Many legumes, eg deerweed. Adults use sunflowers, buckwheat, yerba santa.

Mojave sooty-wing. Saltbush, eg 4 wing.

Mournful dusky-wing. Oaks: live, blue, valley. Adults: yerba santa, buckeye, verbena, buckwheats, sage, mint.

Northern cloudy-wing. Legumes like milk vetch, clover, lotus, false indigo, vetch. Adults use mints, vetches, thistles, milkweed, dogbane, yerba santa, brodiaea, buckeye.

Pacuvius dusky-wing. Calif. lilac, eg buck brush & Jim brush. Adults use the same, and yellow composites.

Propertius dusky-wing. Oaks, eg coast live and Oregon. Adults use blue dicks, yerba santa, Calif. lilac, vetches, phacelia, fiddleneck, buckeye, dogbane.

Sleepy dusky-wing. Oaks, especially leather. Adults use verbena, redbud, heaths, composites, wild onions.

FRITILLARIES Callippe fritillary. Violets. Adults take nectar from yerba santa, buckwheat, coyote mint, sage.

Coronis fritillary. Violets. Adults use aster, rabbitbrush, goldenrod, thistle; yerba santa, mint, buckeye, sage.

Gulf fritillary. Passion vines (alien). Adults use daisies, thistles.

HAIRSTREAKS

 

Bramble Green Hairstreak- photo: BillBouton

Bramble green hairstreak (western green). Buckwheats, legumes like deer weed; Calif. lilac. Nectar: yerba santa, Calif. buckwheat, buckeye, dogbane.

Brown elfin. Manzanita, buck brush, madrone, salal, soap plant, dodder, many others. Adults use Calif. buckwheat, willow, redbud, yerba santa.

California hairstreak. Oaks mainly; also buck brush, mountain mahogany, deer brush. Nectar: yerba santa, milkweed, dogbane, buckwheat.

Gold-hunter’s hairstreak. Oaks, esp. blue and scrub; also interior live. Nectar: buckeye, buckwheat (eg nude), dogbane, milkweed, yerba santa.

Golden hairstreak. Canyon live oak, chinquapin, tan oak. No flower nectar taken; food unknown.

Gray hairstreak. Legumes, mallows, buckwheats, chamise, many others. Adults visit numerous flowers.

Great purple hairstreak. Mistletoe. Adults: buckwheat, umbels, composites, buckeye, milkweed.

Hedgerow hairstreak. Calif. lilacs, esp. buck brush; mountain mahogany. Adults use the same, plus buckwheat, dogbane, yerba santa.

Juniper hairstreak (siva). California juniper. Adults: goldenbush, yarrow, buckwheat (eg sulfur), tansy mustard, milkweed.

Moss’s elfin. Stonecrop, dudleya.

Mountain mahogany hairstreak. Mountain mahogany. Nectar: Calif. buckwheat, yerba santa, milkweed.

Muir’s hairstreak. Sargeant cypress. Adults: Calif. lilac.

Sylvan hairstreak. Willows. Adults use milkweed.

Thicket hairstreak. Pine mistletoe. Adults use rabbitbrush.

LADIES

 

American lady. Everlastings, pussy-toes. Nectar: yerba santa, thistles, marsh baccharis, aster, buckwheat, milkweed.

Painted lady. Thistles, mallows, legumes, nettle, borages (eg fiddleneck). Nectar: composites (eg aster, thistles), buckwheat, yerba santa, mint, borages, lobelia.

West Coast lady. Mallows (eg checker mallow, island mallow), nettles. Nectar: thistles, yerba santa, buckwheat, mallow, mint, sage, milkweed.

MARBLES California marble (pearly). Mustards like jewelflower, tansy mustard, rock cress. Adults use the same, plus pussy paws.

Large marble. Mustards like rock cress (eg tower mustard), wall flower, tansy mustard. Adults: mustards, fiddleneck, brodiaea.

METALMARKS Behr’s metalmark. Calif. buckwheat. Adults: buckwheat.

Mormon metalmark. Buckwheats like Calif., inflated, coast, and nude. Adults: buckwheats; also aster, senecio, rabbitbrush.

MILKWEEDS /MONARCH Monarch. Milkweed. Adults: mint, milkweed, composites (eg sunflower, mulefat), manzanita, mallow.

Queen. Milkweed. Nectar: sunflowers, milkweed.

ORANGETIPS Desert orangetip. Mustards like tansy mustard, rock cress, jewelflower, desert candle.

Pacific (Sara) orangetip. Mustards, eg tower mustard, tansy mustard, lace pod. Adults: host plants, plus thistle, fiddleneck, brodiaea, buckeye, blue dicks, yerba santa.

SATYRS Common ringlet. Grasses like perennial fescue (maybe red or

Calif.) Adults use flowers.

Great Basin wood nymph. Grasses like perennial fescue (maybe red or Calif.) Adults use composites, buckeye, Calif. and nude buckwheat.

SKIPPERS Columbian skipper. Junegrass, oatgrass. Adults use rabbitbrush, goldenrod.

Common checkered-skipper. Monterey Co., maybe here. Mallows. Adults use aster, fleabane, rabbitbrush.

Eufala skipper. Grasses like bermuda. Nectar: vetch, composites, croton, heliotrope.

Fiery skipper. Bermuda grass, crabgrass, others. Nectar: composites, verbena.

Lindsey’s skipper. Native grasses like fescue, oatgrass. Adults visit clarkia, mule ears.

Northern white-skipper. Mallows like bush mallow. Adults use lobelia, yerba santa, composites, mints, buckwheat.

Rural skipper. Grasses like melic; horkelia. Adults: buckeye.

Sachem. Bermuda grass, crabgrass. Adults: milkweed, verbena; rabbitbrush, sunflower, thistle, coyote brush.

Sandhill skipper. Grasses like saltgrass, bermuda. Adults use aster, heliotrope.

Silver-spotted skipper. Legumes: locust, wild licorice, false indigo, lotus. Nectar: honeysuckle, milkweed, thistle, yerba santa, vetch, buckeye, dogbane.

Small checkered-skipper. Mallows like alkali mallow. Adults: mints, milkweed, composites, heliotrope.

Two-banded checkered-skipper. Horkelia, cinquefoil. Adults use pussy paws.

Umber skipper. Grasses, eg hairgrass; sedge. Adults use thistles, coyote brush, yerba santa, milkweed, buckeye.

Western branded skipper. Grasses, eg bluegrass, needlegrass, fescue; sedges. Adults use asters, thistles, mint, buckwheat, yerba santa.

White checkered-skipper. Mallows like alkali mallow.

Woodland skipper. Tall broad-leaf grasses, eg wild rye. Adults use asters, thistles, everlasting, rabbitbrush, coyote brush, dogbane.

SULFURS

 

California dogface | photo: Bill Bouton

California dogface. False indigo, other legumes. Adults: yerba santa, buckeye, thistle, verbena, woolly blue curls, sage, mint, hedge nettle, Calif. fuchsia. 

Cloudless sulphur. Senna. Nectar: thistle, morning glory.

Harford’s sulfur. Douglas milkvetch, deerweed, lupine. Nectar plants: thistle, mint.

Orange sulfur (alfalfa). Legumes: vetches, clovers, milk vetch, deerweed. Adults use milkweed, aster.

Southern dogface. Legumes, eg clovers, false indigo. Adults use coreopsis, verbena.

Sleepy orange. Sennas. Adults use bur marigold, daisies.

Anise swallowtail. Umbels, eg anise (non-native), Tauschia, Lomatium. Adults visit a vast array of flowers.

Pale swallowtail. Rose family, eg holly-leaf cherry; buckthorns, eg redberry, coffeeberry, Calif. lilac (eg buck brush). Adults: wallflower, yerba santa, thistle, mint, lilies, Ithuriel’s spear, blue dicks.

Western tiger swallowtail. Cottonwood, willow, sycamore, ash, alder trees. Nectar: composites, lilies, thistles, yerba santa, milkweed, coyote mint, buckeye, dogbane, lobelia, sage.

TORTOISESHELLS

 

California tortoiseshell. Calif. lilacs, eg buck brush, blue blossom. Adults: flowers (eg manzanita), fruit, sap.

Milbert’s tortoiseshell. Nettles. Adults: fruit, thistle, daisies, rabbitbrush, aster, coyote mint, chokecherry.

Mourning cloak. Willows, cottonwoods. Adults: oak sap, fruit, willow, composites, rabbitbrush.

WHITES

 

Becker’s white. Mustards, eg prince’s plume; bladderpod. Nectar: mustards, rabbitbrush, aster, goldenrod.

Cabbage white. Non-native. Many mustards, eg crops. Adults use mustards, mint, composites.

Checkered white. Many mustards, eg peppergrass. Nectar: mustards, composites, aster, daisy, milkweed, legumes.

Margined white. Mustards, eg toothwort, rock cress, water cress. Adults use mustards.

Spring white. Mustards, eg rock cress, jewel flower, tansy mustard, lace pod. Adults use a variety of flowers.

 

TOTALS: 99 species (49 common)

GARDENING TIPS

Butterflies like:

  • big patches of flowers and color
  • sunny places without wind
  • wet places for “puddling”
  • weedy areas

Insecticides and herbicides are very harmful.

IMPORTANT NECTAR PLANTS (adapted from lists by Las Pilitas Nursery and Paul Opler)

In order to have adult butterflies in your garden for the longest period of time (spring to fall) you must have plants flowering continuously. Thus the nectar plants below are very important. They are given in approximate order of flowering time, beginning with March. You may have to revise these for your own place, according to zone, soil, etc.

Globe gilia. Gilia capitata. Hedge nettle. Stachys.
Pincushion. Chaenactis, eg glabriuscula. Saw-tooth goldenbush. Hazardia squarrosa.
Seaside daisy. Erigeron glaucus. Verbena. Verbena lasiostachys.
Yerba santa. Eriodictyon californicum. Woolly blue curls. Trichostema lanatum.
Sunflower. Helianthus gracilentus. Thistle. Cirsium, eg occidentale var venustum.
Sage. Salvia, eg mellifera, spathacea. Desert willow. Chiloposis linearis.
Mock orange. Philadelphus lewisii. Milkweed. Asclepias eriocarpa, fascicularis.
Tree anemone. Carpenteria californica. Buckwheat. Eriogonum elongatum, latifolium, nudum, roseum.
Buckwheat. Eriogonum fasciculatum. California fuschia. Epilobium canum.
Mint. Monardella. Rabbitbrush. Chrysothamnus nauseosus.

GLOSSARY, CHOICES

Aster Aster, eg chilensis. Calif. aster— Lessingia filaginifolia.

Beardtongue Penstemon, eg centranthifolius, heterophyllus

Buck brush Ceanothus cuneatus

Buckwheat Eriogonum elongatum (long stem), fasciculatum (Calif.), latifolium (coast), nudum (nude), roseum (rosy), trichopes (inflated), umbellatum (sulfur).

California lilac Ceanothus, eg cuneatus, griseus, maritimus, thyrsiflorus

Composites Asteraceae

Daisy Erigeron, esp. glaucus, foliosus

Deerweed Lotus scoparius

Dock Rumex hymenosepalus, maritimus, or salicifolius

Everlasting Anaphalis; Gnaphalium, eg californicum, canescens

False indigo Amorpha california

Fescue Festuca californica, elmeri, rubra (red)

Figwort Scrophulariaceae. Scrophularia atrata or californica

Fleabane Erigeron, eg glaucus, foliosus

Legumes Fabaceae, pea family

Lotus Lotus scoparius; and L. purshianus (Spanish lotus), others

Mallow Malvaceae . Eremalche parryi; Lavatera (tree mallow); Malacothamnus jonesii, palmeri, davidsonii (bush mallows); Malvella leprosa (alkali mallow); Sidalcea diploscypha, malvaeflora, hickmanii (checker mallows).

Milkweed Asclepias fascicularis (narrow leaf), eriocarpa (Indian)

Milk vetch Astragalus curtipes, douglasii, macrodon, nuttallii,

(locoweed) oxyphysus, trichopodus

Mint Lamiaceae: Agastache urticifolia; Mentha arvensis; Monardella, eg antonina, frutescens, palmeri, villosa; Stachys; Trichostema lanatum

Mustard Brassicaceae

Nettle mainly Urtica dioica

Pigweed Chenopodium esp. californicum

Plantain Plantago elongata, erecta, maritima, subnuda

Rock cress Arabis glabra; also pulchra, sparsiflora

Sage Salvia carduacea, leucophylla, mellifera, spathacea

Snapdragon Antirrhinum, eg kelloggii, multiflorum

Soap plant Chlorogalum pomeridianum

Sunflower Helianthus gracilentus, plus annuals annuus, bolanderi

Thistle Cirsium, eg brevistylum, occidentale

Tower mustard Arabis glabra

Umbels Apiaceae, carrot family

Vetch Vicia americana, gigantea, hassei

Violet Viola, esp. V. pedunculata

Wild pea Lathyrus jepsonii, vestitus

Yerba Santa Eriodictyon californicum, tomentosum, traskiae

REFERENCES:

“Art Shapiro’s Butterfly Site,” 2006, [butterfly.ucdavis.edu] Brock & Kaufman, Butterflies of North America, 2003.

Bouton, Bill, personal communication

Garth and Tilden, California Butterflies, 1986.

Glasberg, Jeffrey, Butterflies Through Binoculars, the West, 2001.

Heath, Fred, An Introduction to Southern California Butterflies, 2004.

Hickman, The Jepson Manual, 1993.

Hoover, The Vascular Plants of San Luis Obispo County, 1970.

Las Pilitas Nursery, [laspilitas.com]

Naydol, Al, “California Native Plants for Butterfly Gardening”, 2002.

Opler, Paul, “Butterflies and Moths of North America,” database, 2006. [butterfliesandmoths.org]

Opler & Wright, Western Butterflies (Peterson Guide), 1999

Pyle, Robert, National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies, 1981.

Sedenko, Jerry, The Butterfly Garden, 1991