A seed exchange is planned for the time slot from 6:00 to 7:15 before the October meeting. If you have been hard at work collecting this spring and summer, the time is almost here to part with those seeds. If you are interested in growing from seed, here is your chance to obtain free seed to try your hand at propagation.
Just a cautionary note: Plants grown from seed may not come true. Many of our natives hybridize so that the seed of the Mimulus aurantiacus growing near the Mimulus puniceus may produce some interesting flower colors. The result may not be what you expect. It might be delightful or it might not. These garden produced seeds will generally not be appropriate for use in restoration projects. If you are willing to devote your time and effort and take a chance on
garden grown seed then this is the before-the-meeting event you want to attend.
The plan is that we will set up tables and anyone who brings seed can place it on those tables. The seed from one collector will all be kept in the same area so if you have a box or a tray to contain your seeds that might prove helpful. You may stay with your seed to educate those interested or you may go ‘shopping’ to see what is available. It would be best if seed was parceled out into quantities that a person could walk away with and the packets labeled with genus and species.
You should be able to supply the information of the date of collection and location of collection. But if you don’t want to go to that effort bulk seed will be
acceptable. Please have it cleaned to the best of your ability. Also please supply as many envelopes as possible. Those who are ‘shopping’ may need to bring their own envelopes. Most of us get plenty of envelopes in junk mailings. Let’s repurpose those into seed envelopes. You may also need a writing implement to label those envelopes.
Seeds will not be sold. This is a free exchange. Tables will need to be put away before the actual meeting begins so this will be a rather quick event. Hopefully we will all enjoy it and we will want to try it again next year.
Left over seed will be accepted for possible packaging for the plant sale in November. Seeds appropriate for the propagation group experiments might be sequestered for those members.
See you there.
California Goldenrod (Solidago velutina ssp. californica or S. californica)
The photo by Dr. David Chipping that accompanies this note are of the California goldenrod (Solidago velutina ssp. californica or Solidago californica). According to Dr. Hoover in his Vascular Plants of San Luis Obispo County, California goldenrod is found primarily in sandy soils in the western portion of our county.. It prefers open grasslands or edges of wood and shrub lands. It never seems to me to be overly abundant. The currently recognized species (S. velutina) can be found throughout the Western North America from Mexico in to southern Canada. As might be expected of a species with this wide a range, it has been subdivided in a number of sub-specific units. And this is certainly the case. Only two of the subspecies are likely to be encountered in California (S. v. ssp. californica and S. v. ssp. sparsiflora). Subspecies sparsifolia need not concern us here as it is found primarily in Eastern California and
adjacent states. Subspecies californica is found throughout California (except the S.E. Deserts) but is especially common in the California Floristic Province
which includes essentially all of California west of the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, and Peninsular Range axis. In the Morro Bay area I’ve seen it in the grasslands around Shark Inlet.
In Dr. Hoover’s Flora this plant is recognized as S. californica. In the most recent Jepson Manual, S. californica has been reduced to a subspecies of S. velutina. How can this happen? Is it just the whim of the experts? According to the internet, relatively recent numerical taxonomic work on a number of similar, but separately described species of goldenrod indicated that they were more closely related than previously thought. That they were separately described as species should be expected. Until recent advances in communication, taxonomists tended to do plant identification studies primarily on the
plants of their immediate area. They would have had little opportunity to travel and visit reference collections far from home. They would encounter forms of plants that were readily distinguishable from other plants in their area. So why not describe them as a new species. Now, of course, taxonomists have many more tools to help them find characters unknowable to earlier workers. Mass transit and communication help modern taxonomists to know what others have done or are doing. Equally important they have computers to help analyze all this data. So why not expect lots of changes.
In my limited search of the literature and internet, I found three common names. These are velvety goldenrod in Jepson and California goldenrod or 3-nerve goldenrod everywhere else. The name goldenrod I think refers to my observation that most of them produce clusters on unbranched stems (= “rods”) topped with clusters of bright golden flowers (i.e. ‘gold bearing rods’). Most of the plants answering to the California goldenrod subspecies have densely fuzzy or velvet leaves. 3-nerved golden rod refers to the fact that a ‘few’ of the larger plants produce leaves with 3 major veins running from base to tip. I suggest this is not the best common name as it is misleading as only a few of the largest plants produce 3-veined leaves. California goldenrod is the best as this subspecies is essentially restricted to our state.
California goldenrod is highly recommended for the native plant garden. It prefers moist soils but is relatively tolerant of drier soils from sandy to light clay. It’s going to do best in sunny locations. It is attractive to a number of different classes of pollinators so it is great for those who would like to encourage beautiful, beneficial insects to visit their garden. Lastly, one internet site showed pictures of yarn dyed a beautiful yellow color using extracts from California goldenrod..
One last thing about goldenrods in general. Where I grew up, in the Midwest, there were a large number of species of goldenrods and they were exceptionally widespread and numerous. Many species could even be said to be ‘weedy’. Like a lot of members of the sunflower family, they tended to bloom in the late summer into fall. This is also when another member of the sunflower family bloomed-rag weed (Ambrosia trifida among others).
Rag weeds are unusual composites in that they produce tiny, wind pollinated flowers. Rag weeds were nearly as or more common than goldenrods but because of their tiny flowers many didn’t even recognize they were blooming. However they were blooming and they produced exceedingly huge amount of wind-borne pollen. This made rag weed pollen a major component in allergy forecasts. Unfortunately, announcers would say, “the rag weed and goldenrod pollen counts were high”. I had a botany professor who told the class that goldenrod were included in the forecasts only because it was common and
conspicuous. Goldenrods are insect pollinated and therefore would produce little pollen and that wouldn’t have been released into the air. In fact, it would be sticky so it could stick to the pollinator’s bodies.
Dr. Dirk Walters
It’s time to register for the CNPS Conservation Symposium and field trips to be held in Morro Bay from 8th to 11th September. The field trips are scheduled for Thursday, Friday, and Sunday, with the Conservation Symposium on Saturday at the Morro Bay Vet’s Hall, 209 Surf Street. These events are free and open to the public – Members are encouraged to attend so please register at the link below.
You are also encouraged to attend the mixer and banquet after the Symposium Saturday night – with our own native plant superstar, Dave Keil, as the banquet speaker – there will be a $30 fee for the catered meal.
Saturday, 10th September, 8:30 am to 5:00 pm
Morro Bay Vet’s Hall, 209 Surf Street, Morro Bay
This year’s Symposium will address the complex issues associated with climate change, as they relate to California native plant conservation. The Symposium presentations will focus on three areas:
- Hands-on projects that incorporate climate change considerations during planning and implementation
- Modeling of future vegetation projects based on climate change projections
- How regional planning considers and incorporates climate change.
Area A – Hands-on projects:
Speaker Ellen Cypher: Creating new populations of an endangered species: recovery efforts for Bakersfield cactus
Speaker Jessica Wright: Identifying valley oaks that grow best under projected climate conditions
Speaker Todd Esque: The Race North: Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) and climate change
Area B – Modeling of vegetation dynamics:
Speaker Alexandra Syphard: Modeling vegetation dynamics under global change: Approaches, challenges, and examples
Area C – Regional conservation planning:
Proponents of the new Regional Conservation Framework (California Assembly Bill 2087 and pilot projects) will present the nuts and bolts of this approach to regional planning. CNPS members from around the state will be asked to discuss how they have engaged in and commented to planning projects, while assessing how the degree climate change thinking has begun to influence planning decisions.
Speaker Jerre Stallcup, a longtime conservation planner, will share her perspectives on how “doing it the old-fashioned way” has evolved since the early 90’s in Southern California. Key points that help to support plants in any kind of regional planning process will also be presented. She will help us understand the many facets of how and where climate change thinking is being translated into native plant research, restoration projects, and planning.
Symposium Lunch: ($10 per person, please register), Saturday, 10th September, 12:00 noon to 1:00 pm
Choice of sandwich on baguette, served banquet style with green salad, fresh fruit, chips, and cookies:
Symposium Mixer and Banquet: ($30 per person, please register), Saturday, 10th September, Morro Bay Vet’s Hall, 209 Surf Street, Morro Bay
Mixer/Social, 5:30 to 6:30 pm
Dinner, 6:30 pm to 9:00 pm
- Greek Caesar salad
- Roasted garlic potatoes
- Marinated roasted vegetables
- Assorted rolls and butter
- Vegetarian sautéed portabella mushroom stuffed with cheese ravioli
- Lemon garlic herb chicken with mango q
- Roasted pork tenderloin with cherry sauce.
- Linn’s fruit pies with ice cream.
Banquet speaker: Saturday, 10th September, Dave Keil – the Native Flora of San Luis Obispo County
Dr. Dave Keil is Professor Emeritus of Biology at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo. Dave has had a lifelong interest and enthusiasm for botany. He received his B.S. and M.S. in botany from Arizona State University and his Ph.D. from Ohio State University. He has taught courses in general botany, plant taxonomy, field botany, evolution, and biogeography. For many years Dave served as Curator of the Robert F. Hoover Herbarium at Cal Poly. He has authored scientific papers, textbooks, and study guides, and has been a major contributor to the Jepson Manual and the Flora of North America. His research interests include Asteraceae systematics and floristics of Western North America. He edited the Wildflowers of San Luis Obispo and is preparing the second edition of the Vascular Plants of San Luis Obispo County.
Field trip schedule
Thursday – 8th September Morning – 8:30 am to 12:00 noon
East Cuesta Ridge, Los Padres National Forest
Led by Dave Keil, Cal Poly; co-leader Bill Waycott, CNPS
Meet at entrance to East Cuesta Ridge (Mount Lowe Rd.), off Highway 101 at the top of the Cuesta Grade, 30 minutes from Morro Bay.
This is a driving tour along the ridge separating coastal and interior regions in the Los Padres National Forest. See diverse plant communities and spectacular views of the coastal plain with its nine Morros, the city of San Luis Obispo, and the Pacific Ocean.
No more than 0.5 miles walking; elevation gain no more than 100 feet
Afternoon – 1:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Sand Spit at Montaña de Oro State Park
Led by Michael Walgren, CA State Parks; co-leader: Bill Waycott, CNPS
Meet at the Sand Spit Road parking lot, at the end of Sand Spit Rd., in Montaña de Oro State Park, 15 minutes from Morro Bay.
Start by walking to the beach through a rich stand of coastal dune scrub, then north along the beach to an access trail into the dunes. Hike across the dunes, observing the fore-, mid-, and far-dune plant communities. Return through maritime chaparral, via the Old Army Rd..
2.5 miles walking; elevation gain 300 feet
Friday – 9th September Morning – 8:30 am to 12:00 noon
Serpentine plants near San Luis Obispo
Led by Dave Keil, Cal Poly; co-leader: Bill Waycott, CNPS
Meet at the entrance to Bog Thistle Trail, in the Irish Hills Natural Reserve, on Perfumo Canyon Rd., roughly 1.0 miles from the intersection with Los Osos Valley Rd. The trailhead is on the left. 20 minutes from Morro Bay.
Walk the Bog Thistle and Mariposa Trails. See plants of the central coast chaparral scrub community adapted to serpentine derived soils, with a handful of rare endemic species native to San Luis Obispo County.
2.0 miles walking; elevation gain 500 feet
Afternoon – 1:30 pm to 5:00 pm
Field Trip, Coon Creek at Montaña de Oro State Park
Led by Lisa Andreano, CA State Parks; co-leader: David Chipping, CNPS
Meet at the Coon Creek parking lot, at the end of Pecho Valley Rd. in Montaña de Oro State Park. 20 minutes from Morro Bay.
Walk going east along Coon Creek Trail and return going west via Rattlesnake Flats Trail. The Coon Creek Trail follows a coastal canyon with a perennial creek and is filled with riparian species typically seen further north. Rattlesnake Flats Trial returns by ascending the south-facing slope of the canyon with a healthy sampling of maritime chaparral species.
4 miles walking; elevation gain 500 feet
Sunday – 11th September
Afternoon – 1:30 pm Field trip – Morro Bay State Park Estuary
John Sayers, California State Parks, co-leader: Bill Waycott, CNPS
Meet at the parking lot for Morro Bay State Park Marina off Main Street, across from the entrance to Morro Bay State Park Campground.
Visit several access points by car around the perimeter of Morro Bay Estuary. See and discuss plants growing in brackish water within the tidal zone, beyond the high tide line, and further inland. Discuss effects to this fragile habitat because of climate change.
0.5 miles walking; elevation gain 50 feet
If you have any questions or need for more information, please contact Bill Waycott, (805) 459-2103, firstname.lastname@example.org
Also, if you can offer a bed to a member from out of town during the conference, please let Bill know as soon as possible.
CNPS Conservation Symposium and Field Trips Information, schedules, links, and the registration page
Image: By Leif Arne Storset – originally posted to Flickr as Bishop Peak, CC BY 2.5
The Mission Plaza riverwalk in downtown San Luis Obispo caters to thousands of central coast tourists and SLO community members every year. While SLO creek is widely admired, the riparian and creek bed vegetation leaves much to be desired. The City of San Luis Obispo Natural Resources Manager, Robert Hill, began to talk with the Executive Director of the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) and Cal Poly Horticulture and Crop Science professor, Bill Waycott, about the possibility of restoration for the riverwalk. This initial talk led to the involvement of others on the project including: Freddy Otte, the City of SLO City Biologist, John Doyle, landscape architect for J. Doyle Landscape and Construction, and Cal Poly Emeritus professor and curator of vascular plants, Dr. David Keil. The group met once to begin making plans but, the project was slow-moving with each member having a tremendous workload to manage for their respective jobs. The passion for the restoration was present; the time for the project work was missing.
For the past two years, Freddy Otte has been a Mentor for the Watershed Stewards Program (WSP) at the San Luis Obispo Steelhead Initiative. At the mention of the need for help with the restoration project, Freddy mentioned the possibility of collaboration to one of the Region II Team Leaders for the WSP SLO Office, Allie Watts. The Watershed Stewards Program is an AmeriCorps program and a special program of the California Conservation Corps whose goal is salmonid habitat restoration throughout California. WSP aims to give young natural resource professionals the hands on experience with experts in fisheries, conservation, and environmental fields during their 10 ½ month service term. Each Team Leader and Member of WSP must complete a watershed restoration project to fulfill part of their program requirements. The SLO Creek Restoration project would be the perfect fulfillment for WSP and truly allow Allie to immerse herself in the SLO community.
After email introductions, Allie began setting up meetings with all the project leaders to put these plans into action. The SLO Creek Restoration project team met several times prior to the first volunteer day on April 27th, 2016. The team decided the first plan of action was to remove the many invasive species throughout the riparian area of SLO Creek from the footbridge near Chorro Street to Broad Street. In general, invasive plants have shallow root structures which cause erosion into the creek in rain events. They also outcompete native plant species which provide valuable habitat for native animals living there, have deep root systems that reduce erosion, and are drought tolerant plants. Common invasive species the team planned to remove included: Vinca (periwinkle), Agapanthus (), and Ailanthus altissima (Tree of Heaven).
Allie, Freddy, Bill, John, and Martha Rutherford, CNPS member, became the core leaders on the team and worked together to recruit volunteers, procure tools and safety gear, and spread the word about the event. On April 27th, 2016, the team’s hardwork was rewarded when over 140 volunteers showed up to remove invasive plants at SLO Creek. The volunteers ranged from Cal Poly students, CCC corpsmembers, community leaders from CNPS and the Downtown Association to local community members and families. While invasive removal is an ongoing process, this volunteer day was an excellent step in the right direction for the health of the SLO Creek riparian area. The shock of bare riparian areas kept the team’s momentum high moving forward.
The following meetings focused on native planting plans. Dr. David Keil provided great insight into the appropriate native plants that would thrive in the conditions at SLO Creek. Using his list, the team decided to reach out to the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) student chapter at Cal Poly to acquire a planting palette. Brandon Cornejo, ASLA member, took charge of the project and the team was supplied with a base conceptual planting map and palette to allow the native planting volunteer days at SLO Creek to begin. Using the ASLA map and recommendations from Dr. Keil, the native plants were purchased from local nurseries, Growing Grounds, Las Pilitas, and Clearwater Color, and donated by project leaders. On March 12th, 2016 the team hosted the first native planting volunteer day at SLO Creek. Around twenty volunteers consisting of community members, WSP members, and CCC corpsmembers came out to help plant eighty native species in the first round of planting restoration. All volunteers learned proper planting techniques and the importance of creating a bern around the plant’s base. The bern is essentially a channel around the plant that keeps water close, allowing it to sink in. The berns were especially important for the natives planted on a downhill slope to ensure runoff was not rolling into the creek.
Following the initial planting, Allie continued to hand water all the plants once a week for four months and monitoring their progress. About 70% of the native species planted on the first volunteer day survived. During these four months, the team continued to meet to discuss the plant’s progress, future planting volunteer days, and future signage for the creek. ASLA and Brandon were instrumental in delivering a large “Back to the Natives” planting sign for SLO Creek. This sign features educational information on native and invasive plants as well as photos of the plants. The final sign is set to be approved by the city in September or October of this year. Upon approval and after more restoration work is completed next year, two large signs will be printed and placed at either end of the project, near the footbridge by Broad Street and past the footbridge near Chorro Street. In addition to the large signs, small native plant signs will be placed near different plant species in the riparian area to help community members and tourists identify California riparian native plants. The goal for all of this signage is to help educate and enhance the visitors experience when walking near the creek.
After a four-month hiatus, the team scheduled another large native species planting volunteer day at SLO Creek. On July 23rd, 2016, around twenty volunteers consisting of community members and families, WSP members, and CCC corpsmembers came out to SLO Creek to help plant 108 more native plants and place bark mulch throughout the planted area of the project to help soak up water and prevent weed and invasive species growth. With one area of the project beginning to adapt to the native plant growth, the project team feels good about the current condition of the river walk but knows there is still more work to do. When asked why this project was so vital for SLO Creek and the city, Bill Waycott explained in saying, “The pristine landscapes of Coastal California are slowly being colonized by invasive plants introduced from other parts of the world. The banks of the perennial creek that flows through downtown San Luis Obispo is no exception. Local residents can make a difference in stemming the tide of invasives by learning what California native plants look like and opting to use them when planting an area. Our mild climate and abundant sunshine provide the opportunity for non-native plants to thrive, having negative consequences. Restoration of SLO Creek at the Mission Plaza will serve as an excellent example of the use of native plants to all who visit our city.” This project will take years to reach its full potential but, this team is all committed to this county and continuing to be a part of the SLO Creek Restoration team. Next October or November the team will be hosting another volunteer event to plant native species, remove some limited invasive growth, and place bark mulch throughout the second area past the footbridge near Broad Street. Moving forward the project team envisions, the removal of the sprouts and large Tree of Heaven near the creek, more volunteer days for native planting in the first area and the second, creekbed invasive removal and native planting volunteer days, and inputting the large and individual educational signage.
The September meeting of the CNPS Chapter Council will be held in Morro Bay from Thursday to Sunday, September 8-11, 2016.
This meeting is held four times per year in different parts of the state (the last meeting was held near Lake Tahoe), and is attended by delegates and representatives from the majority of CNPS’s 35 chapters statewide, along many CNPS staff from the Sacramento office. The San Luis Obispo chapter is hosting this meeting and we hope our membership will participate in the events being offered. The Morro Bay Vet’s Hall (209 Surf Street) will serve as the location of meetings between Friday noon to Sunday noon.
Thursday and Friday, we plan to offer field trips to choice botanical destinations on the Central Coast. Friday afternoon, the State Board of Directors will also meet between 2:00 and 6:00 pm at the Vet’s Hall, followed by a no-host dinner at a local restaurant. Local members are invited to participate in the field trips, board meeting, as well as “meet and eat” dinner, Friday night.
For Saturday, the session will focus on Statewide Conservation Projects, with a series of presentations devoted to all-things pertaining to California native flora conservation. The Sunday morning session will be devoted to Chapter Council business topics, with another field trip planned for Sunday afternoon. Local members are encouraged to participate in Saturday’s Conservation Symposium as well as Sunday afternoon’s field trip.
An official agenda of the meeting will be circulated by mid-August.
An important tradition of the Chapter Council meetings is the offer by local members of free accommodations to outside participants during the event. If you have the ability to accommodate one or more participants from outside the area in your home, please send an e-mail or call Bill Waycott, email@example.com, (805) 459-2103, to discuss your offer. In your communication, please indicate the number of persons to be accommodated and whether there is a sexual preference or not.
Current motel prices for that weekend in the Morro Bay – San Luis Obispo area are easily above $150 per night. The offer of a bed with access to a bathroom will go a long way in making the meeting more affordable for those traveling to our area. One never knows – hosting one or more visitors may create a lasting friendship that can be reciprocated in the future. Plus, these folks know their native plants and will be happy to talk about the botany of their area.
SLO County Supervisors are meeting Tuesday August 16 and they need to hear from YOU!
Many voices REALLY DO make a difference! Especially now that some of the uproar about the Justin clearcutting debacle has died down. (more…)
Next Tuesday, 8/16/16, the SLO County Board of Supervisors will consider the continuance of the Urgency Tree ordinance generated by the Justin oak cuttings. Property rights people will likely flood the meeting to halt any attempt at oak protection, and we need you there… the meeting starts at 9:00 am on the 16th. Just being there in favor of the ordinance or of the value of oaks will help, but going to the podium and saying a few words in favor would be extremely valuable. Speak as individuals, as CNPS board members will make presentations on behalf of the society. We are also concerned that if the required 4:5 vote to continue does not go through, the BOS will then vote to work on a permanent ordinance. This should NOT happen, as it might generate a vast amount of cutting by land speculators in anticipation of a future ordinance. This sort of thing happened with well drilling in the face of promised restrictions in the Paso Robles Basin.
– David Chipping, Conservation Chair
Running through the heart of downtown near Mission Plaza, San Luis Obispo Creek is a vital part of our watershed that is in need of restoration. The Watershed Stewards Program (WSP) in partnership with the City of San Luis Obispo, the California Native Plant Society (CNPS), The American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) Student Chapter at Cal Poly, and Growing Grounds will be hosting a volunteer event Saturday July 23rd from 9:00 am – 1:00 pm to remove invasive plants, plant native species, cover the area with tree bark and in the future, post educational signage along the creek between Broad and Chorro streets.
Read the full Press Release
Justin Vineyards just cut down hundreds of Oaks
Justin Vineyards is coming under fire for clear-cutting oaks from their property outside Paso Robles. Justin is owned by The Wonderful Company, who also owns Teleflora, Halo’s, Pom Wonderful, Fiji water and other brands. (more…)
Image: By Gmihail at Serbian Wikipedia (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 3.0 rs (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/rs/deed.en)
or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
I volunteer at the botanic garden Tuesday mornings. The display of yellow Viola on the undeveloped portion of the hills was wonderful this year and it occurred to me that there would be lots of seeds. I would really like to have the propagation crew at the garden try to grow some of these as I think they would make a nice addition to our gardens. Granted they disappear in the heat of the summer but they could make a nice groundcover under some of our shrubs and need no water in the dry time. So I approached Eve. Eve is the person who started the garden as an extension of her senior project at Cal Poly. She was receptive to the idea. I asked if I could take a bit more for other uses. Again the answer was yes and extended to some of the other plants on the hills. So when I thought the seeds might be ready I ventured out.
These are hills that are brown in the summer. They are covered with oats and ripgut and some other not so nice plants. But there are patches of Viola and Sidalcea and Sisyrhincium. So I had a goal of collecting all three. Finding those patches was not always easy. The plants disappear into the dried grasses. But I could ﬁnd some. And in my wandering looking for patches I was excited to discover that not only are there the invasive sorts of grasses but there was lots of Stipa pulcra, some Melica californica, Melica imperfecta (or at least a different kind of Melica), Elymus triticoides (I think), Elymus condensatus, Hordeum bracyantherum and the most exciting ﬁnd, for me, was some Danthonia californica. I am not collecting seeds of those grasses because they are not represented in great numbers and I want all the seed that’s there to possibly increase populations. But I am collecting the seeds of the Viola, Sidalcea, and hopefully the Sisyrhincum.
However, patience is a requirement. Finding the patches of Viola was not nearly as challenging as ﬁnding the seeds ready to gather. I am honing my observational skills and getting up close and personal with the plants. I was looking for black, ripe seeds so black drew my attention. Often the black was a little beetle that I saw only on violets. Is this a good bug or a bad bug? I have no idea. But if it is providing food for the birds in my book it’s a good bug. Perhaps it’s one of those specialist bugs that only use one plant. Questions. Down on my knees I can see the developing seed capsules and I have observed that as they ripen they lift and point to the sky. Once ripe, the capsules pop open. Sometimes a few seeds remain in the opened capsule. Whether these are defective or not I don’t know but I have collected them. At least they are black. Picking a few capsules early results in green seeds. I have picked a few, unopened but upturned, which have resulted in the sound of popping seeds in the paper bags at home. I have gotten some black seeds out of these. My favorite ﬁnd is to see the open capsule, still green, and ﬁlled with black seeds. Treasure! But it has taken weeks of venturing up on the hill to get a few tablespoons of seeds. Some of these will ﬁnd their way to the seed exchange.
The Sidalcea is another story. I found that many of the ﬂowers did not develop into seeds, but in some areas there were more that developed than others. Does this reﬂect the presence of more pollinators in some areas than others? In some areas the stalks were half gone. Are they browse for deer? More observations lead to more questions. But I did collect a few seeds that seemed to be ripe. The capsules on these plants seemed to dry with the seeds remaining in the capsule. But as they dried they would separate a bit and I found that if I just brushed my ﬁngers across a capsule seeds would fall into my hand. I found capsules with just a few seeds remaining so assumed these were ripe. I don’t have many seeds of these but after sharing with the botanic garden a few will end up at the seed exchange. You should want these. I have a Sidalcea grown from seed that has been blooming for several months in my garden. I think it’s beautiful.
As for the Sisyrhincium, I don’t have seeds yet and am not sure that I will. Those patches, which were so obvious and seemed so huge when they were covered with their blue-purple blossoms, are very hard to ﬁnd when there is no ﬂower to beckon. Those that I have found are not yet ripe. The capsules are still green and I don’t know if I will have any luck ﬁnding ripe seeds. But I am going to try.
What about not having the right shoes? The shoes I wear at the botanic garden are really old worn out hiking shoes with that open mesh sort of fabric for breathability. They are really great grass seed collectors. Those seeds penetrate through the open mesh and through my smart wool socks and into my skin. Almost intolerable. Before I drive home I have to remove my shoes and get rid of those seeds. I am pleased to ﬁnd that they collect Stipa seeds too which means that there are plenty of Stipa seeds to be had. But I am very conscious of the fact that I don’t want to be transferring these seeds to the trails so they are no longer used for hiking.
Reminder: Seed exchange before the October meeting.
Image courtesy of jkirkhart35 | https://www.flickr.com/photos/jkirkhart35/
Some of the most notorious invasive plants such as Carpobrotus, slender leaved ice plant, and cape ivy come from South Africa. Another quite bad one is Veldt grass (Ehrharta calycina). This bunch grass has wide (1/4″) leaves, is glaucous (grey-green) until it matures and turns maroon. From the road it has red tops which turn blond. The seed stems can reach chest height. It is a perennial that produces an incredible amount of seeds and grows throughout the year near the coast, living off fog drip, but mainly follows the rainy winter. Veldt grass is awful because it crowds and overwhelms other plants.
To be rid of it, manually pulling mature plants, including the buried crown of the plant is necessary or resprouting will occur. But this also this often stimulates seed germination. Manual removal must be repeated as seedlings appear from the seedbank. Serious infestations can be sprayed with a grasss-speciﬁc herbicide such as Fusilade. Timing is critical, especially after the ﬁrst several inches of rain. Some applicators report that postemergence treatment to plants over 4 inches tall is much more effective compared to treating smaller plants. If your locale has had Veldt for a long time keep at it until the seed bank is exhausted. The task is very difﬁcult in drought and easy in wet years.
Best wishes weed warriors.
We will be keeping an eye on a proposed agricultural cluster on the Jack Ranch, situated on the ﬂanks of the hills behind Country Club Estates and Rolling Hills Estates in the Edna Valley. Clustering would seem at ﬁrst glance a good idea, as it can minimized the total impact of structures on open space. However potential negatives arise from the extra house lots allowed as a clustering incentive, and the fate of the created contiguous open areas under potential conversion to row crop or grapes. It is likely water supply will be an issue, as the Edna Valley has serious water supply issues.
Due to the ability of germinated grasses to ‘ride out’ the February drought that decimated our wildﬂowers, this is a spring of very tall grasses and thick stands of noxious pests such as veldt grass. As the drying grasses are tall enough to stand above the shrubs, the intensity of the infection to the dune ecosystem can readily be seen to those entering Montana de Oro Park. A group of interested parties, including CNPS, discussed with John Sayers (California State Parks) about getting some independent funding brought in for grass control, overcoming institutional barriers to use particular removal methods, and prioritizing areas for experimental treatment. It was pointed out that much of the greenbelt around Los Osos was acquired with outside money from agencies on the basis of the exceptional quality of the habitat and the high content of rare species. We will propose that investing in veldt removal with be protecting past investment, rather than declaring in a decade that the money was wasted.
Join the Conservation Committee
As we conclude the 2015-2016 active season, I encourage chapter members to consider joining the conservation committee with the speciﬁc job of keeping a close eye on the cities where they dwell. If you follow local city politics and building plans, your knowledge would be a welcome addition that you might consider for the 2016-2017 season. The more eyes we have, the better the ﬂora might be protected.
The prune-ability of Arctostaphylos has been well known in the nursery industry for many years. I’m going to discuss my experience with the species I’m most familiar with, Arctostaphylos morroensis.
The Morro bay manzanita grows in and around the Los Osos area. It has seeds that can survive many years in sandy soil. I have found them germinating in yards located around Montaña de Oro State park. In many cases these plants come up in areas where their large stature would not be appropriate. Rather than removing them, I have transplanted some, or have talked the owners into letting me shear them into a hedge shape. In most cases, I ﬁnd that the plants are doing very well. They seem to live for many years under this intense pruning. The plants have maintained a much smaller stature, which is what the home owners wanted. They have developed a much denser canopy and their leaves have a much lusher color.
The only downfall I have found is the new growth can be a magnet for aphids. The aphids invade the new growth before it matures causing a red appearance as the insects drain the chlorophyll out of the new shoots. This new growth can also become deformed causing a very ugly mess. However, don’t worry, you can prune off the infested new growth and then apply a soapy spray solution. It maybe necessary to redo this treatment three times tonrid the plant of all the aphids. There is also a reduction in leaf spot. Leaf spot can be a real problem on the
older, mature leaves. Since the leaves are being trimmed all the time, the leaf spot cannot take hold.
So now that you know a little bit more about Arctostaphylos morroensis and its abilities, I hope you will consider it as a hedge substitute. If you have any plant questions, please ﬁll free to e-mail me. Until then, Happy Gardening!
Desert Evening Primrose (Oenothera deltoides)
Desert evening primrose (Oenothera deltoides) is in full bloom at Shell Creek as I write this. So it
seemed appropriate to resurrect a drawing Bonnie drew back in 1981. It is one of her earlier drawings since it shows a lot of shading. The flowers are white and the plant starts out as a small mound and then spreads-out across the surface of the ground. It can reach several feet across. Fruits are produced along the full length of the branches. However, if you go to Shell Creek in summer and fall you will probably find little trace of it. This is
because as the branches dry out, they turn upward forming what resembles a largish bird cage. Lastly, the dried plant breaks off and joins the other tumble weeds bouncing around and distributing its seeds.
The species has several common names, including birdcage evening primrose, bird cage plant, basket evening primrose, lion in a cage, and devil’s lantern, or as I’ve been simply calling it, desert evening primrose. As my preferred name implies, it’s found in the deserts, from eastern Washington through California, Nevada, Arizona
and into northern Mexico. The common names that refer to “cages” are references to its bird-cage shape the dried plant takes just before it tumbles away.
According to The Jepson Manual, it has five recognized subspecies. This would be expected by a plant occupying such a large range with so many variations in habitat. It prefers well drained soils so it is very common on desert sand dunes thus another common name is dune evening primrose. In our area it is found in the valleys of the interior Coast Ranges, especially in sandy or well drained soils. The area around Shell
Creek is the most northwestern extent of its range of which I’m aware. At Shell Creek it’s most numerous in the sandy alluvial fan east of Shell Creek.
Some of the people on the Malcolm G. McLeod Annual Shell Creek Field Trip might have noticed quite a few of the flowers were fading, desert evening primrose flowers open in the evening and close up in the morning. That is, their large, fragrant, white flowers are open mostly at night when it’s dark. The white flowers would make them visible in the twilight and darkness. The flowers are very odoriferous at least in the evening. The large, white, night-blooming, odoriferous traits indicate that the species is pollinated by moths, probably hawk moths.
Before 1969, the genus, Oenothera, was huge and included species given the common names evening primrose for the night blooming ones and sun cups for the day flowering ones. Sun cups and evening primroses share, with other members of its family, Onagraceae, four separate petals. In fact, the flowers of the Onagraceae, have a number of distinctive set of characteristics which makes them easy to recognize. They produce flowers that possess four sepals, four petals, eight stamens, attached to the top of a generally thin, often long tube constructed from the bases of the sepals, petals and stamens (hypanthium). The hypanthium arises from the top of the usually four-parted ovary. This means the ovary is said to be inferior or below all the flower parts. This can be summarized asCA4 is short for calyx which is the collective term for the 4 sepals; CO4 stand for the corolla, the collective term for the 4 petals. A8 is the abbreviation for androecium, which translates as the “male things” which are the 8 stamens). G4 stands for gynoecium (female thing) which represents the four-parted ovary, style and/or stigma. The circled four indicates that the 4 subunits (carpels) that make up the gynoecium are fused into a single pistil (visual unit of the gynoecium within a flower). The most conspicuous character that separated plants with the common names, sun cups and evening primroses, is the stigma. A look at Bonnie’s drawing will show it to have four hair-like stigma branches. Only true evening primroses (Oenothera) have this trait. The rest of the old, un-split genus Oenothera display a single wide hemispherical cap. At first, all these species were put into the single genus, Camissonia. Unfortunately this is no longer the case as the knob-stigma species are now scattered into several genera with differences of opinion as to how many. One last point, these are EVENING primroses not primroses. I bring this up because a number of web sites left off the evening in the name evening primroses when giving their lists of common names. I know that common names are not regulated, but to call them simply, primroses, I find totally confusing. True primroses are in the totally unrelated family, Primulaceae. The Primulaceae have flower parts in 5’s. That is, they have 5 sepals, 5 fused petals and 5 stamens placed in front of the petal lobes. The ovary is superior and has only a single cavity, not 4, inside. A common weedy member of the Primulaceae is scarlet pimpernel which is a weed in almost all of our gardens. At least it is in those of us who are not great gardeners.
Your SLO CNPS chapter recognizes the importance of helping students begin their careers in botany. Several years ago, the Malcolm McLeod Scholarship was established to help graduate students fund their research with scholarships in the $300‐$1000 range.
This year there are three recipients.They are Kristen Nelson, Understanding the ecological impacts of Eucalypus globulus on California native habitats; Julia Harencar, Indistinguishable Species of Goldfields: A case of Ecological Selection; and Lindsey Whitaker, Managing for biodiversity in the Guadalupe Nipomo Dunes and the rate of invasion by invasive grass, Ehrharta claycina (Veldt grass).
Put our June 1 chapter meeting on your calendar. These students will be joining us to do presentations on their research.
Hopefully many of you are remembering that we will have our ﬁrst seed exchange before the October meeting.
If you are interested in participating, now is the time to start closely observing your plants for seed formation and maturation. I have already started taking a few seeds from my Ranunculus californicus (buttercup), Lepechinia calycina (pitcher sage), and Heuchera maxima (island alum root). With a neighbor’s permission I have wandered her pasture collecting seed from Callindrinia ciliata (red maids). By the time this appears in the newsletter I suspect I will be gathering from my Stipa pulchra and Melica californica. So hone your observational skills, get close to your plants, and collect seeds!
I’ve included this article regarding information on the collection and cleaning of seeds for you to download.
This document talks about Why and When to collect native plant seeds and offers tips for collecting and storing seeds. By Marti Rutherford, CNPS-SLO, April 2016
Lauren Brown crafted our chapter’s comments on the Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes (GND) Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Environmental Assessment(EA). The CNPS SLO Chapter fully supports the proposed management Alternative B (moderate increase in wildlife and habitat management, incremental increase in visitor services and environmental education). If budget considerations do not allow implementation of Alternative B, we would support Alternative A (no action), where the current level of management and public use opportunities are maintained. We strongly oppose Alternative C (minimal wildlife and habitat management and the Refuge is closed to the public), as written, for the following reasons: (1) the minimal level of monitoring and maintenance described in Alternative C is insufficient to ensure the continued existence of these species within the Refuge; (2) we concur with the findings of the EA that a decrease in the current level of invasive species management, as proposed in Alternative C, will increase the threat of invasive species to degrade and potentially destroy wildlife habitat within the refuge, and adjacent to the refuge; (3) decreased oversight will fail to detect newly introduced invasive species; and (4) feral swine must continue to be controlled due to the damage they cause.
El Villaggio Development
CNPS was represented by Dr. Neil Havlik in our opposition to the proposed annexation and development of the El Villaggio development on Los Osos Valley Road and Calle Joaquin (the southwest corner of the intersection). Dr. Havlik testified that (1) the City’s General Plan requires that new development in the Irish Hills stay below the 150 foot elevation line. The current proposal ignores that restriction and extends well above that line in two areas of the property. One of these locations contains at least two plant species of concern in the City’s General Plan (Chorro Creek bog thistle and clay mariposa lily) and likely others. The nearby Vineyard Church was developed in the County (which had and has no elevation limit for development) and should not be used as a justification for the City abandoning its stated policies; (2) even if rare plants are “protected” by a 50 ft. buffer, the project will likely affect the hydrology required by the bog thistle; (3) there are serious wetlands impacts including so-called restoration of Froom Creek which is essentially destructive channelization, and apparent destruction of wetlands along Calle Joaquin.
Sadly, the SLO City Council was unanimous in letting the project move forward, so that our next opportunity to stop the project will be the issuance of an EIR.
Cape-Ivy gall fly + weeds
In other issues, the chapter is supporting the proposed release of Cape-Ivy gall fly, following may years to testing that the gall fly will only affect cape ivy. We wrote a support letter to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) at the request of California Invasive Plant Council. Several other issues regarding dangerous pests that we will be considering are the impacts of new giant tumbleweed that has arrived from the Central Valley, the spread of Sahara mustard in Los Osos, and the migration of polyphagous shot hole borer as it moves north from the LA Basin, killing a wide variety of trees. People interested in working on these issues should contact me or Mark Skinner who is taking over from Lauren Brown on weed issues.